Hep B Blog

Category Archives: 300 Million Reasons

A Quick Introduction to Public Health Funding in the United States

Written by Frank Hood- Associate Director of Policy and Partnerships at Hepatitis B Foundation!

 

The COVID-19 pandemic put a spotlight on why countries need a robustly funded public health system that can respond to the needs of its citizens quickly. In the United States, that public health system is a patchwork of federal, state, and local departments, agencies, and programs. Each has their own rules and regulations, which can be challenging to navigate. You might have a hard time seeing how it all works together without falling apart. And you might struggle to understand how resources can find their way to the local health centers and community-based organizations doing much of the important health work on the ground. This blog post provides a basic overview of how public health funding works within the United States. 

Hundreds of federal departments, agencies, and programs funnel money into the public health system of the United States. One of the more familiar organizations is the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Among its many health-related functions, HHS handles disease prevention and outbreak response through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and provides health coverage for underserved and older Americans through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Other departments like the Department of Agriculture (USDA) may not seem like a key source of health funding, and yet support dietary health initiatives and help states build rural medical facilities through infrastructure investment programs.

The amount of funding these departments, agencies, and programs receive varies yearly. Some funding, like for Medicare and Medicaid, doesn’t require an annual vote from Congress (known as “mandatory spending” in policy-speak) and is just paid for as expenses are incurred. Other funding, like for the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), requires a yearly vote of Congress as well as sign-off by the President. This is known as discretionary spending. Most US public health programs fall in the discretionary spending category. That vote happens each year after the House and the Senate go through a formal process to determine how much money every department, agency, and program in the entire federal government receives. This process also includes specifying any special instructions or conditions associated with the funding like restrictions on how the money can be spent or requesting a status report on the impact of a specific program

If Congress can’t agree on funding levels by the start of the new fiscal year, then a government shutdown occurs. In those instances, any non-essential federal program funded by discretionary spending would be forced to suspend operations, while state and local programs would still be able to function but would not receive federal funds during that time.

Once Congress approves funding levels, federal funds and agencies begin the process of distributing money to their various internal programs and to states and other localities. In the simplest terms, many agencies will send money to states in the form of grants that the states apply for by listing how they would use the money and what positive impact it will have on the state. The amount of funding that passes down to states depends on the function of the agency. State health departments receive the largest percentage of their funding from federal sources, so the grant-making process can lead to states competing for limited federal funds. Federal funds make up anywhere between half and two-thirds of states’ total health funding.

Much of the remaining funding for state health departments comes from their state legislatures. Each state has their own specific process, but most states mirror the federal approach of having their legislatures determine how much state funding should be given to various departments, agencies, and programs in the state and any restrictions on the use of that funding. Other sources of public health dollars include fines, fees, charitable donations, and public-private partnerships.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generally, state health departments send their dollars to local health departments, which deliver direct care or education on the ground. The funding the state keeps  is often used to pay for state-wide health systems like health surveillance, emergency response, and prevention education. How states determine where money goes varies, but there are usually similarities to how federal departments and agencies determine which states should receive what funding with grant applications.  

Once local health departments and community-based organizations have funding in-hand, they then must spend it according to the rules and regulations set by the source (Congressional instructions, federal agency requirements, state requirements, etc.).  

At this point, you see the complex tapestry of public health funding in action in your community: the health screenings at the local fair, the vaccine drives at your local place of worship, and even when your child brings home a pamphlet from a health educational program held at school. It’s all public health funding in action. 

In addition to public funds, some programs are funded in part directly through donations from people like you. If a public health program means a lot to you, see if you can help the organization who put it together by volunteering, spreading the word or donating. 

 

References:

https://www.cdc.gov/about/organization/mission.htm 

https://www.cms.gov/ 

https://www.usda.gov/our-agency/about-usda/mission-areas 

https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R47106 

https://www.crfb.org/papers/qa-everything-you-should-know-about-government-shutdowns 

https://www.astho.org/topic/public-health-infrastructure/profile/#activities 

https://www.norc.org/PDFs/PH%20Financing%20Report%20-%20Final.pdf 

https://www.norc.org/PDFs/PH%20Financing%20Report%20-%20Final.pdf 

https://www.publichealthlawcenter.org/resources/state-local-public-health-overview-regulatory-authority 

Team Helpatitis: Students and Teachers Come Together to Raise Awareness of Hepatitis B in India! 

 

Hepatitis B is a critical public health crisis in India.  With over 40 million HBV carriers, it is estimated that over 115,000 people die each year from hepatitis B related causes and one million newborn babies are at risk of developing hepatitis B in India. 1 

In an effort to raise awareness for hepatitis B and contribute to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) viral hepatitis elimination plan, teachers and students at Amity International School in New Delhi, India launched Team Helpatitis to promote hepatitis B education.. Science teachers have integrated hepatitis B education in their extra-curricular activities to teach students about chronic hepatitis and liver health. School events and festivals have provided unique opportunities for students, teachers, and parents to come together and learn about the importance of prevention strategies like hepatitis B screenings in making India hepatitis free!  

Diwali Lamps Bring Hope and Awareness to the hepatitis B Cause in India 

During the month of Diwali, a religious festival of lights, Team Helpatitis students designed liver shaped oil lamps to promote awareness. These lamps are made from clay pots and are lit every year on Diwali to represent the transition from darkness into light in the coming new year. Students and teachers hope to combat the stigma and misconceptions associated with hepatitis B though these lamps. The lamps were distributed to school students and teachers to bring home and share the important message of hope and resilience with their friends and families. 

 

 

 

 

 

The liver shaped lamps were sculpted, packaged, and distributed by the students and teachers to raise awareness of hepatitis B during the Diwali festivities at their school.

Pin-O-Liv: Dart Throwing Competition to Understand the Difference between Good and Bad Liver Habits! 

The Winter Carnival at Amity International provided a platform for students to showcase their learning outside of the classroom and educate attendees about healthy and unhealthy habits for their liver. The students chose an interactive sport to keep the players informed and entertained. They created a dartboard with pictures representing good and bad lifestyle habits and their impact on the liver. Before the game, players were briefed on liver health and ways to keep the liver healthy and safe. Players were given five darts and challenged to hit the images with unhealthy habits.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Students participate in the dart-throwing competition to “kill” the bad habits that destroy our liver

Livbola: Students reinvent tambola to promote hepatitis B education among children and adults 

Tambola is a slightly different version of Bingo and is a beloved pastime of south Asian communities. The students were given a short presentation on hepatitis B and liver cancer. They were then introduced to the rules of the game and were quizzed on questions related to hepatitis and liver health. Prizes were distributed to players to encourage participation. The players included students, school staff, and community members.

 

 

 

 

 

 

School staff, students, and parents play the Livbola game during their annual winter carnival

The Hepatitis B Foundation was recently approached by the teachers at Team Helpatitis for a live session on hepatitis B. The Foundation met with the students and teachers via zoom a few weeks ago and discussed the physical, social, and financial impact of hepatitis B.  We also discussed the importance of preventative strategies like vaccines in promoting positive health outcomes for all communities.  

 

 

 

 

 

The students and teachers of Amity International School met with the Foundation for an introductory session on hepatitis B on zoom.

 

By participating in these activities, projects, and festivities with the help of their school’s leadership and administration, Team Helpatitis has expanded their reach beyond the classroom and amplified the voices of public health workers, advocates, and people living with hepatitis B! Check out Team Helpatitis’ social media channels to stay updated! 

Team Helpatitis’ Instagram:  https://www.instagram.com/helpatitis_aisv1_yppteam/ 

 

References: 

chrome extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/searo/india/health-topic-pdf/factsheet-b-hepatitisday2016.pdf?sfvrsn=da61ef0_2#:~:text=In%20India%2C%20the%20prevalence%20of,D%2C%20followed%20by%20Aand%20C. 

Premkumar, M., & Kumar Chawla, Y. (2021). Chronic Hepatitis B: Challenges and Successes in India. Clinical liver disease, 18(3), 111–116. https://doi.org/10.1002/cld.1125 

 

2022 Advocacy Year in Review

As we wrap up 2022, we hope you’ll take some time to look back and celebrate the exciting and important hepatitis B policy and advocacy achievements of the past year! Community partners and grassroots advocates around the world came together to advance our shared advocacy goals and working toward the elimination of hepatitis B.  

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This year we celebrated big wins in the U.S. including:  

Congressional Funding for Pennsylvania Center of Public Health Excellence  

With the passage of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2022 Omnibus Appropriations Act in March, the Hepatitis B Foundation received $475,000 to create a Center of Public Health Excellence focused on hepatitis B elimination by providing expert resources, advice, training, capacity building and technical assistance for state and local partners on how to best prevent, treat and control hepatitis B, and to increase the rate of adult vaccination and testing for hepatitis B. The Center of Public Health Excellence was one of nine community projects that Congressman Brian Fitzpatrick secured funding for in the FY 2022 Omnibus. 

 

Implementing Universal Hepatitis B Recommendations   

In April, universal hepatitis B vaccination for adults aged 19-59 became official recommendation. HBF immediately embarked on a dissemination campaign to raise awareness of the new guidelines amongst various stakeholder groups. HBF also launched the Hepatitis B Vaccination and Screening Advisory Council, which is comprised of key stakeholders from the provider and patient advocate communities and hepatitis B experts. The Council held a two-day meeting in June to develop implementation strategies for universal hepatitis B vaccination and screening (expected in 2023) and will publish its findings in a white paper. 

 As our network of grassroots advocates and storytellers continues to grow, we have also expanded our involvement in state/local advocacy and global advocacy. Our ongoing advocacy efforts in the U. S. include calling on Optum to restore the hepatitis B treatment Vemlidy back to their health insurance formulary. Globally we continue to put pressure on Gavi to move forward with implementation of hepatitis B birth dose in member countries, urging members of Congress and President Biden to help end hepatitis B discrimination in the U.S. military, recognizing National African Immigrant and Refugee HIV and Hepatitis Awareness (NAIRHHA) Day in the U.S., advocating for universal adult hepatitis B screening, and increasing funding for hepatitis B and liver cancer. 

 

Updated U.S. Public Health Service Corps Medical Standards  

The U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Commissioned Corps announced in December that it is updating its medical standards to accept future applicants living with chronic hepatitis B and HIV. Previously, HIV and hepatitis B infection were both considered disqualifying medical conditions. The Hepatitis B Foundation became aware of this issue in late 2020, when an individual with hepatitis B applied to serve but was denied due to their hepatitis B infection. Working alongside partners, we successfully advocated for a change in this policy by meeting with senior administration official and Congressional champions, and getting language included in the FY 2022 House Labor-HHS Appropriations report urging the USPHS to allow officers with hepatitis B to serve in the Commissioned Corps.  

  

Check out the report to learn more!  

https://www.hepbunited.org/assets/Advocacy/5d40b3bcc9/2022-HBU-Year-in-Review-Final.pdf 

  

From all of us at the Hepatitis B Foundation and Hep B United, THANK YOU for your continued support and dedication to advocating for hepatitis B awareness, prevention, treatment, and research and combatting stigma and discrimination. We are so proud of what the hepatitis B advocacy community achieved this year, and we look forward to continuing to work together to build on the momentum of these accomplishments in 2023! 

If it’s not broken, don’t fix it! A hepatitis B vignette.

The Scenario

Yufei Zhao is 45 years old and lives with his family in Philadelphia,   Pa. Yufei discovered that he had hepatitis B when he attended a community health fair with his family. Even though he was instructed to talk about his diagnosis with a doctor and learn more about possible treatment options, Yufei decided to do nothing as he did not feel sick. While he has health insurance through his employer, he never utilizes any health care services. He often skips annual wellness visits as he says he “never gets sick.”  

A few weeks ago, Yufei’s family noticed that he has been skipping meals frequently saying he’s full or not hungry. At his daughter’s urging, he decided to go for a visit. After conducting some more tests, his doctor explained that the chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus had progressed substantially, and he had developed cirrhosis. After an MRI diagnosis, it was revealed that Yufei had liver cancer.

The Hepatologist (liver doctor) explained to Yufei that the liver is an important organ and acts as a cleaning system for the body. It removes toxic waste, purifies blood, and helps to digest food properly. When the virus entered the liver, it made many copies of itself and started attacking healthy liver cells. This led to inflammation and weakened the ability of the liver to carry out its most essential tasks. Because he was never monitored for hepatitis B, the virus allowed tumors to grow in the liver which caused the cancer. When the tumors grow in size or number, it eventually spreads to other parts of the body and disrupts other vital processes as well. 

The doctor mentioned that liver cancer is often called the silent disease because symptoms may not always be present. Even with a hepatitis B, a person could look or feel okay but that does not mean the virus isn’t active and causing damage. When the symptoms do show up, it might be too late to prevent liver cancer. After discussing his options with the doctor, Yufei learned that the best treatment for him was to get a liver transplant.  

He weighed the pros and cons of getting a transplant and consulted with his family. Now, Yufei is placed on a waiting list for a liver transplant to become available. In the meantime, his doctor has suggested other methods to destroy the smaller tumors without surgery through radiation (ablation). Yufei continues to spend more time with his family as he hopes to respond well to treatment until a new or partial liver is available.  

The Challenge

Cultural Perceptions on Health & Well-being 

  • Yufei is an older male in the household and the backbone of the family. For this reason, he considers it an obligation to prioritize his family over his personal health. It is important to understand these cultural and social beliefs prevalent in many different cultures and households. 
  • Family members should be advised to encourage their loved ones (especially older family members) to take charge of their health. It is important to check-in with your loved ones and assure them that sickness does not necessarily mean weakness. Taking care of one’s health can mean taking charge of one’s future.  

Hep B and Liver Cancer

  • Hepatitis B is a virus that causes inflammation of the liver. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, the virus can continue to multiply and damage healthy liver cells. This can lead to inflammation and scarring of the liver. This prevents the liver from doing its most important functions to maintain overall health which may result in the development of harmful tumors.  

Liver Cancer is a Silent Disease 

  • Many people with hepatitis B or liver cancer do not show symptoms of sickness but that does not mean the virus isn’t present or not actively working to harm the liver. Eventually, the physical symptoms will become noticeable as the virus/cancer advances to a more dangerous stage. 
What can you do?

Get tested! 

  • The most important thing you can do to prevent liver cancer is to get tested for hepatitis B. Most liver cancers develop from undiagnosed hepatitis B infections. There are a lot of people who have hepatitis B and do not know about it because they have never been tested. Even if you feel healthy and okay, it does not hurt to get tested!
  • If you don’t have hepatitis B, the test can tell you if you are vaccinated or if you need vaccination (which can provide lifelong protection from ever getting hepatitis B and help prevent liver cancer). 

Get screened! 

  • If you have hepatitis B, it is critical to manage the progression of the virus in your liver. For this reason, it is important to go through monitoring of your hepatitis B infection, liver health, and screen regularly for liver cancer.
  • Discuss with your doctor if you are at high-risk and how often you should get screened. It is recommended to get an ultrasound every 6 months to check how the virus is impacting the liver. AFP testing may also be done with regular monitoring of the liver to check for the possibility of liver cancer. 

Get educated! 

  • Stay up to date with the latest research and information on liver cancer! If you have hepatitis B, you should know that there is no cure for the virus but there is a lot of research that shows what you can do to ensure you live a healthy and long life.
  • Take an active role in learning about the disease and how it can affect your health over time. Learn about fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver cancer staging, and available treatments for hep B infection.  

References
  1. https://www.hepb.org/research-and-programs/liver/screening-for-liver-cancer/ 
  2. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/treating/by-stage.html#:~:text=Treatment%20options%20might%20include%20ablation,%2C%20and%2For%20radiation%20therapy. 
  3. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.html 
  4. https://www.hepb.org/research-and-programs/liver/risk-factors-for-liver-cancer/ 

Ignore it till it goes away! A hepatitis B vignette.

The Scenario:

Woman is sick on couch, her husband is giving her an ice pack

Aroha Kawai just started a new job as a medical interpreter for Pacific Islander patients diagnosed with COVID-19. As a critical source of communication for the providers and the patients, she is often called to work night and weekend shifts. Aroha had a difficult conversation with the family members of a critical COVID-19 patient on whether they should discontinue ventilation support for the ailing grandmother. During this time, Aroha’s family noticed changes in her behavior. She stopped eating regularly, lost weight and repeatedly cancelled plans to go out. Aroha dismissed her family’s concerns as physical manifestations of the emotional burnout from work.

People are at a free hepatitis B screening event in a park.

Recently she attended a health fair hosted by her department at work. She approached a viral hepatitis screening booth and decided to get tested for hepatitis B. The following week, she received her results in the mail. Her results indicated that she had tested positive for hepatitis B. She shared her diagnosis with her mother who informed her that her grandfather died from liver cancer.  

Inside a doctor's office. A doctor is showing information about the liver. A woman with hepatitis B sits with her husband.

Aroha then followed up with her primary care doctor She discovered that she had chronic hepatitis B. Even though the ultrasound did not show any evidence of cirrhosis, her doctor ordered an imaging test (U/S, CT, MRI) to screen for liver cancer. Unfortunately, Aroha was diagnosed with early-stage liver cancer 

Inside a hospital room. A man and child visit a woman with hepatitis B in a hospital bed.

Fortunately, the cancer had not spread and did not infect nearby blood vessels. Her doctor suggested a partial hepatectomy to remove the tumor safely as the rest of the liver was still healthy. Aroha decided to adhere to her doctor’s advice and successfully underwent the surgery. She has taken some time off from work to focus on recuperating from the surgery and spending time with loved ones.  

 

 


The Challenge:
  1. Dismissal of Symptoms:
    • Aroha initially ignored the physical symptoms of liver cancer. It is true that signs and symptoms may not necessarily be present.
    • However, it is crucial to take care of one’s health and never ignore warning signs. Fatigue, unintended weight loss, and loss of appetite are a few of the symptoms of liver cancer. 
  2. Cancer without Cirrhosis: 
    • It is possible to get liver cancer without cirrhosis. Therefore, it is always important to screen for liver cancer if you have chronic hepatitis B infection. 
  3. Importance of Screening
    • Liver cancer screening is a highly effective method to detect malignant tumors and prevent cancer for those living with hepatitis B.
    • Early intervention increases the survival rate significantly and stops the cancer from spreading to other vital organs. 

What can you do?
  1. Get Help!
    • If you experience pain or discomfort of any kind, it is important to reach out for help. Set up an appointment with your doctor and discuss your concerns.
    • There is a good chance you might be misunderstanding an important health issue for side effects of stress or emotional burnout. Do not ignore your symptoms or feelings.  
  2. Get Screened!
    • Hepatitis B is a leading cause of liver cancer, most of the time it is because someone did not know they were infected with hepatitis B or were not managing their hepatitis B infection.
    • Everyone should be tested for hepatitis B to know their status. Ask your doctor for a hepatitis B screening today.  
  3. Stay on track!
    • If you have hepatitis B, it is critical to manage the progression of the virus in your liver. For this reason, it is important to go through liver cancer surveillance regularly. Discuss with your doctor if you are at high-risk and how often you should get screened.
    • It is recommended to get an ultrasound with blood work every 6 months to check how the virus is impacting the liver.  This includes the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test to measure the levels of AFP in your blood as it may indicate the presence of cancer cells in your liver. This can also help detect any scarring or tumors. 

Don't ignore it until it goes away. Get help. Get screened for hepatitis B. Stay on track.


Resources and Acknowledgements:
  1. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html 
  2. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/treating/by-stage.html 
  3. https://www.hepb.org/research-and-programs/liver/prevention-of-liver-cancer/ 

Reactivation with Hepatitis B: Understanding Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies

Understanding the hepatitis B virus and the panel of blood tests needed to determine infection or immunity can be a stressful and challenging task. In simplest terms, “hepatitis” means liver inflammation and the hepatitis B virus can ultimately cause liver inflammation. The liver is an important organ in the human body and responsible for the removal of toxins and regulation of digestion (learn more about the function of the liver here). The hepatitis B virus can infect and disrupt critical functions of the liver in supporting your overall health. 

How the hepatitis B virus works 

In the case of the hepatitis B virus, the host is the liver cell. As the virus makes more copies of itself, the liver may become damaged, and sometimes it is unable to carry out its essential tasks to regulate metabolism, nutrients, and digestion. It is best to prevent hepatitis B infections when we can – and since antibodies are the best defense against the virus, the hepatitis B vaccine can be used to signals the body to make antibodies to fight the virus. The hepatitis B vaccine provides lifelong protection from the virus. However, this is only possible before infection with the virus. If somebody is already infected with the virus, antiviral therapy is used to control the virus and prevent liver damage – antiviral medications disrupt the life cycle of the virus by disabling viral receptors from binding to liver cells. 

Blood test panel to diagnose hepatitis B: 

The only way to tell someone’s hepatitis B status is through a panel of blood tests – the tests are all done at one time, and only one small tube of blood is needed. These tests are not included in routine testing, so it is important to ask your doctor to test you for hepatitis B or try to find a free screening event near you (http://www.hepbunited.org/). The panel consists of the following tests to determine your hepatitis B status: 

  1. HBsAg: 
    • This tests for the hepatitis B surface antigen in someone’s blood. The surface antigen is the protein that surrounds the virus and protects it from attack by the host. A positive surface antigen test indicates that the virus is present in the body. A “positive” or “reactive” result for HBsAg indicates that someone is infected with hepatitis B and can transmit the virus to others.  
  1. HBsAb 
    • This tests for the hepatitis B surface antibody in someone’s blood. The surface antibodies are produced by the immune system and can fight off the virus by attaching to the surface antigen protein. This test can detect the presence of these antibodies. Ideally this test will be ordered quantitatively (numerically). A “positive” surface antibody test (meaning numbers reading >10 IU/mL) means that a person has protection against the hepatitis B virus (either by vaccine or from a past exposure).  
  1. HBcAb (total) 
    • This is known as the hepatitis B core antibody test. The core antibody is produced by the immune system after infection with the virus. This test indicates an existing or past infection of the hepatitis B virus.  

 

To learn more about interpreting your test results, click here. 

Important things to know about Hepatitis B Core Antibody (HBcAb) 

Someone who has markers of past infection, particularly hepatitis B core antibody, can be at risk for hepatitis B reactivation. Reactivation can be triggered by immunosuppressive therapies and cause significant life-threatening challenges. If you test HBcAb+, please talk to your doctor about what that means, and make sure you notify all future health care providers. 

How is reactivation with HBV defined? 

Reactivation is defined as the sudden increase or reappearance of HBV (hepatitis B virus) DNA. When the virus invades the cell, it forms a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of infected cells referred to as hepatocytes. Because cccDNA is resistant to antiviral treatments, it is never removed from the cells. Therefore, even after recovery from a past infection, the cccDNA is present and may reactivate. It is not clearly understood why this may happen, but certain factors may increase the risk for reactivation.  

To learn more about the core, click here. 

What puts one at risk for reactivation? 

  1. Virologic factors such as high baseline HBV DNA, hepatitis B envelope antigen positivity (HBeAg), and chronic hepatitis B infection that persists for more than 6 months.
    • Detectable HBV DNA levels and detectable levels of HBsAG can increase the risk for HBRr (reactivation) 
    • Testing positive for HBeAg also increases the risk for reactivation 
  2. Co-infection with other viruses such as hepatitis C or hepatitis Delta 
  3. Older age 
  4. Male sex 
  5. Cirrhosis 
  6. An underlying condition requiring immunosuppressive therapies (rheumatoid arthritis, lymphoma, or solid tumors) 
    • Certain medications can increase the likelihood of reactivation by more than 10%.  
    • B-cell depleting agents such as rituximab, ofatumumab, doxorubicin, epirubicin, moderate or high-dose corticosteroid therapy lasting more than 4 weeks. 

How to prevent reactivation of hepatitis B 

Hepatitis B reactivation is a serious condition that can lead to health complications, Reactivation is avoidable if at-risk individuals are identified through screening. Current guidelines recommend that individuals at the highest risk (those receiving B-cell depleting therapies and cytotoxic regimens) should receive antiviral therapies as prophylaxis before beginning immunosuppressive therapy. These antiviral therapies should also be continued well beyond stopping the immunosuppressive therapies. Be sure to talk to your doctor to be sure you are not at risk for reactivation.  

References 

Hepatitis b virus reactivation: Risk factors and current management strategies.

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus: A review of Clinical Guidelines.

https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cld.883

https://www.hepb.org/prevention-and-diagnosis/diagnosis/understanding-your-test-results/

Hepatitis B Foundation Introduces 300 Million Reasons Movement

By Beatrice Zovich

The Hepatitis B Foundation is excited to launch a new movement called 300 Million Reasons, named for the almost 300 million people worldwide who are living with hepatitis B. The goal of this movement is to improve awareness about hepatitis B and liver cancer worldwide, to promote engagement of key stakeholders, and to empower people impacted by hepatitis B across the globe to become vocal advocates. We want to amplify the voices and stories of the millions of people directly affected by this disease, in order to make sure that hepatitis B is granted the funding, attention, and serious consideration that it deserves. The 300 Million Reasons movement will be officially launched in July of 2021, in time for World Hepatitis Day, but we wanted to begin sharing resources and information now. 

This movement is divided into four branches: B Informed, B Connected, B the Voice, and B the Change. Each of these arms is described below. 

B Informed

Hepatitis B can be prevented, treated, and managed. The B Informed branch of the 300 Million Reasons movement involves raising awareness about hepatitis B and liver cancer, providing accurate information, dispelling myths and misconceptions, decreasing stigma and discrimination, and providing simple hepatitis B educational tools, which will focus on transmission, prevention, liver cancer screening, and living with chronic hepatitis B. We have created a free and downloadable social media toolkit that can help spread the word about statistics, vaccines, testing, monitoring and care, symptoms, blood tests, acute vs. chronic hepatitis B and more. Check it out today! 

B Connected

You are not alone! The B Connected arm of 300 Million Reasons works to increase access to clinical trials, expand global connections to support people living with hepatitis B and their loved ones around the world, establish international peer mentoring programs, and create a social network and further community engagement opportunities for people impacted by hepatitis B. This branch of the movement will be modeled after current coalition work that has been done with Hep B United and the Coalition Against Hepatitis in People of African Origin

B the Voice

Your voice matters! The B the Voice component of the 300 Million Reasons movement is focused primarily on international storytelling and elevating the voices of those living with and affected by hepatitis B around the world. Stories of discrimination, stigma, screening, diagnosis, treatment, supporting community and family members, personal and larger-scale successes, setbacks and victories – all are important to share and learn about in order to raise awareness, inspire change, and eventually find a cure. Do you have a story to share? We would love to read it! Share your story today using this link

B the Change

Stand up, speak out! B the Change aims to increase activism among those living with hepatitis B and their loved ones and to use this as a tool to advance the cause of increasing knowledge about and support for hepatitis B among legislators and policy-makers. It will include national and international community ambassadors, strong relationships with the World Hepatitis Alliance and other key partners, outreach to people living with hepatitis B who have not had prior involvement in this effort, and advocacy training and opportunities. With knowledge can come action – let’s build a strong communication network to spread the word and B the Change to create a world that is Hep B-free! Become a hep B advocate today by joining our Action Center

The 300 Million Reasons movement will continue to grow and expand over the coming months and years, as more materials and resources are developed and disseminated. We hope you will continue to stay tuned on our website for updates and that you will join us in taking steps toward shining a light upon, and eventually eliminating, hepatitis B! Join the movement today!