Hep B Blog

Category Archives: HDV

Spotlight on Hepatitis Delta: Renewed Scientific Interest Paves the Way for New Data and Treatments

 

For decades, hepatitis delta, the dangerous coinfection of hepatitis B, was thought to only affect about 5-10% of the estimated 292 million people worldwide with chronic hepatitis B infections. With limited data and funding for research related to this complicated virus, true prevalence data, diagnostic tools and skilled physicians to manage hepatitis B and delta coinfection have remained limited until recent years. Publications in 2019 by Miao, et al., Chen, et al., Shen, et al., are helping to reveal a possibly more accurate picture of the burden of coinfection, conducting meta-analyses comprising data from hundreds of thousands of hepatitis B patients and the general population. While it was previously thought that 15-20 million coinfections existed globally, this new research has suggested there may be between 48-74 million1,2,3. Although these studies analyzed data that classified the presence of hepatitis delta antibodies, which can be present in cases of both past or current infection, there is a strong correlation between their presence and likelihood of an ongoing infection. These new studies may place coinfection at upwards of 10-15% of those with hepatitis B, with some of the hardest hit areas facing coinfection rates greater than 30%, in regions like Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Latin America and West and Central Africa1,2,3.

 

Understanding hepatitis delta is vital to helping to identify coinfected patients, who require altered treatment and management plans, and who may progress to cirrhosis and/or liver cancer in periods as little as 5-10 years. Diagnosis and management for hepatitis delta is still a challenge in much of the world, but in the US, it is becoming easier than ever before, with Quest Diagnostics, a commercial U.S. lab, rolling out a new HDV RNA test, a game-changer for physicians to easily order the test and manage patients. HDV RNA testing was previously available only through the Utah-based lab, ARUP, and Boston’s Cambridge Biomedical, but had to be specialty ordered. As testing continues to become more widely available and affordable, hepatitis B patients can more easily access testing. The more patients who are diagnosed, the more evidence for the urgent need for improved treatments to combat the virus, which is currently poorly controlled by the only available treatment; pegylated interferon.

Luckily, the virus has attracted the attention of nine pharmaceutical companies from around the world, with each working on a different approach to better controlling, or even curing hepatitis delta. Two of these companies, Eiger Biopharmaceuticals (US) and Myr Pharma (Germany) are now in Phase 3 clinical trials, where patients are flocking to enroll in these trials, which present new opportunities to receive treatments that may be more effective in controlling their coinfection. Eiger’s clinical trials will test their new drug, Lonafarnib, in clinical trial arms with and without pegylated interferon and/or ritonavir, with sites open in many countries throughout the world. Myr’s clinical trial will test their new drug, Myrcludex B, in similar triple-treatment combinations. Their clinical trial sites are now open in Russia, and the drug is already being prescribed for “compassionate use” in France. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has even taken notice; issuing guidance for industry on the development of hepatitis delta drugs for treatment in October 2019. This provides a valuable set of standards and expectations for clinical trials in regard to ethics, trial design, and patient needs.

Hepatitis delta coinfection has also received more attention this year at international hepatology conferences such as at the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL)’s International Liver Congress in Vienna, Austria, the International Liver Congress in American Association for the Study of the Liver (AASLD) meeting in Boston, and HEP DART in Hawaii. This year has brought many milestones for hepatitis delta data, diagnostics, and clinical trials. With continued scientific research and interest, Hepatitis Delta Connect hopes to continue to support these milestones and drive awareness efforts.

References:

1. Zhijiang Miao, Shaoshi Zhang, Xumin Ou, Shan Li, Zhongren Ma, Wenshi Wang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Jiaye Liu, Qiuwei Pan, Estimating the global prevalence, disease progression and clinical outcome of hepatitis delta virus infection, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz633.

2. Chen H, Shen D, Ji D, et al. Prevalence and burden of hepatitis D virus infection in the global population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut 2019;68:512-521.

3. Shen D, Ji D, Chen H, et al. Hepatitis D: not a rare disease anymore: global update for 2017–2018. Gut Published Online First: 09 April 2019.

Hepatitis B and Delta Coinfection: A Public Health Crisis in Mongolia

 

Mongolia is one of the world’s most sparsely populated countries yet is home to the highest infection rates of hepatitis B and delta coinfection worldwide1. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 5-10% of the nearly 300 million global hepatitis B patients are co-infected with hepatitis delta. Hepatitis delta is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, and greatly increases the risk of cirrhosis, scarring of the liver, and liver cancer; with seven out of 10 patients progressing within 10 years 4. In Mongolia, 70% of hepatitis B patients are coinfected with hepatitis delta, and the country is known for having the highest rates of liver cancer on the planet2,3. These statistics are startling and highlight a public health crisis for Mongolia, where most families have at least one family member affected 2.

How are people getting infected?

Historically, healthcare-related exposures are suspected to be the biggest risk for contracting hepatitis in Mongolia. Despite the 1993 national policy was set to regulate the multi-use of single-use syringes in healthcare settings, effective sterilization practices, and medical staff training, proper inspections remain an ongoing issue. Healthcare workers themselves are also at risk, with requirements for hepatitis B vaccination set by the Ministry of Health recently in 20145. Although routine infant vaccination for hepatitis B began in 19916, older populations remain at risk or are susceptible to exposures.

Treatment Access

For a nation so widely affected by liver disease, as of 2015, skilled physicians and liver transplant experts are sparse – with only one reported team performing transplants in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city1. Fibroscan, CT scans, and liver biopsies; routine screening tools for liver disease and liver cancer, have only been introduced in recent years, and are still not routinely used for liver cancer screening as recommended by WHO7. This lack of surveillance leaves most patients to endure late diagnoses. Due to the rural landscape, where nearly 30% of the population lives below the poverty line10 and historically nomadic lifestyle accessing care is a challenge. Access to treatment for hepatitis B is additionally a challenge, and traditional medicines might be utilized. Pegylated interferon, the only current and somewhat effective treatment for hepatitis B and delta coinfection, was registered about 10 years ago in Mongolia and is still not covered by its national healthcare system, making it too expensive for most low and middle-income families8. With the help of partnerships, the government has integrated funding for palliative care for liver cancer patients, with most facilities centralized around the capital city7. With a failing insurance system and little government prioritization for prevention and treatment, many are calling on the World Health Organization (WHO), pharmaceutical companies and NGOs to step in to curb the crisis9.

Hope

Mongolia’s crisis has not been left unaddressed. Over the last 10 years, Mongolia’s government has prioritized combatting hepatitis, developing its first viral hepatitis national strategy in 2010, and focusing on prevention, affordable treatment, and public awareness programs. Admirably, coverage under the national insurance plan for antivirals began in 2016, greatly subsidizing the cost of hepatitis B treatment11. These efforts did not go unnoticed, and in 2018, WHO praised Mongolia’s efforts in moving towards the elimination of hepatitis B and C, recognizing its successes in its national program, “Whole-Liver Mongolia”. Another program, “Hepatitis Free Mongolia”, an initiative of the Flagstaff International Relief Effort (FIRE), Flagstaff Rotary Club, Rotary Club of Ulaanbaatar and the WHO, offers free hepatitis education, screening, vaccination and care for those infected. The project also trains healthcare providers and offers free exams, diagnostic services and patient counseling; a vital service for many who may not be able to access or afford these services otherwise. Since 2011, the project, along with FIRE’s Love the Liver program have tested nearly 9,000 people for hepatitis B, screened 6,000 for liver cancer and performed over 3,000 specialist exams, and, in a country of only 3 million people, has made a meaningful impact. The effort is also unofficially supported by Mongolia’s Ministry of Health, who is continually investing in efforts to curb the burden of hepatitis.

References:

1. “Viral Hepatitis in Mongolia: Situation and Response.” World Health Organization, 2015, iris.wpro.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665.1/13069/9789290617396_eng.pdf.

2. “Hepatitis: A Crisis in Mongolia.” World Health Organization, 2017, www.who.int/westernpacific/news/feature-stories/detail/hepatitis-a-crisis-in-mongolia.

3. Rizzetto, Mario. (2016). The adventure of delta. Liver International. 36. 135-140. 10.1111/liv.13018.

4. Abbas, Z., Abbas, M., Abbas, S., & Shazi, L. (2015). Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma. World journal of hepatology, 7(5), 777–786.

5. Baatarkhuu, Oidov & Uugantsetseg, G & Munkh-Orshikh, D & Naranzul, N & Badamjav, S & Tserendagva, Dalkh & Amarsanaa, J & Young, Kim. (2017). Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Mongolia. Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology. 7. 68-72. 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1215.

6. Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa & Ojima, Toshiyuki & Uehara, Ritei & Watanabe, Makoto & Oki, Izumi & Wiersma, Steven & Nymadawa, Pagbajab & Nakamura, Yosikazu. (2007). Impact of the Universal Hepatitis B Immunization Program in Mongolia: Achievements and Challenges. Journal of epidemiology / Japan Epidemiological Association. 17. 69-75. 10.2188/jea.17.69.

7. Alcorn, Ted. (2011). Mongolia’s struggle with liver cancer. Lancet. 377. 1139-40. 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60448-0.

8. “Country Programme on Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control.” World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region, 2015, www.wpro.who.int/mongolia/mediacentre/releases/20160318_viral_hep_prevention_control/en/.

9. Jazag, A., Puntsagdulam, N., & Chinburen, J. (2012). Status quo of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, in Mongolia. The Korean journal of internal medicine, 27(2), 121–127. 10. “Poverty in Mongolia.” Asian Development Bank, 2019, www.adb.org/countries/mongolia/poverty.

11. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on a National Strategy for the Elimination of Hepatitis B and C; Strom BL, Buckley GJ, editors. A National Strategy for the Elimination of Hepatitis B and C: Phase Two Report. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Mar 28. 1, Introduction. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK442230

 

Printable Hepatitis Delta Fact Sheets for At-Risk Populations (Available in 5 Languages!)

 

Hepatitis delta is estimated to affect 15-20 million people globally who are also living with hepatitis B. Hepatitis delta’s geographic distribution is not uniform, and does not always follow regions of highest hepatitis B prevalence. Although more recent data is sparse, regions of higher coinfection are thought to be in Mongolia, Eastern Europe (particularly Romania, Russia, Georgia, Turkey), Pakistan, the Middle East and the Amazonian River Basin. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) recommends that hepatitis B patients from these areas be tested for hepatitis delta. If you are a community member or community health worker or physician, please utilize our printable fact sheets to help raise awareness about hepatitis B and delta!

Fact sheets are available in 5 languages, including English, Mongolian, Romanian, Russian and Spanish!

English for Patients    English for Providers

Mongolian for Patients   Mongolian for Providers

Romanian for Patients   Romanian for Providers

Russian for Patients   Russian for Providers

Spanish for Patients   Spanish for Providers

For more information on hepatitis B and delta coinfection, visit www.hepdconnect.org or contact us at connect@hepdconnect.org.

My Hepatitis B Viral Load is Low (Or Undetectable), Am I Still Infected with Hepatitis Delta?

For people who have been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and delta coinfection, a low or undetectable hepatitis B viral load does not usually indicate that they’ve cleared both infections. This is because, in cases of coinfection, hepatitis delta usually becomes the dominant virus, and suppresses hepatitis B, slowing or even stopping its replication entirely. If someone is still positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the hepatitis delta virus can still replicate (often with copies in the millions) and cause potential liver damage  1For this reason, the test to measure hepatitis delta activity, the HDV RNA test, is important in disease monitoring and management  2,3. Available since 2013, the HDV RNA test can be acquired internationally through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and from several labs in the US. 

For those suspected of having acute hepatitis B and delta coinfection, HBsAg testing should follow 6 months after initial diagnosis. If HBsAg is negative (non-reactive), both infections are likely to have cleared. It’s important to remember that people who contract hepatitis B and delta during one exposure are likely to clear both viruses.  If HBsAg is positive (reactive) after 6 months, both infections are likely chronic (life-long). Those who are known to have a chronic hepatitis B infection and then become infected with hepatitis delta later on, they are likely to develop chronic coinfections 

Following diagnosis with hepatitis B, with or without delta coinfection, it is important to have close, household contacts and sexual partners screened, and to follow simple prevention measures and practice safe sex using condoms.  

Both hepatitis B and delta are prevented with the safe and effective hepatitis B vaccine series.  

For more information on hepatitis B and delta coinfection, visit www.hepdconnect.org or contact us at connect@hepdconnect.org 

References: 

  1. Huang, C. R., & Lo, S. J. (2014). Hepatitis D virus infection, replication and cross-talk with the hepatitisB virus. World journal of gastroenterology20(40), 14589–14597. 
  2. YurdaydınC, Tabak F, Idilman R; Viral Hepatitis Guidelines Study Group. Diagnosis, management and treatment of hepatitis delta virus infection: Turkey 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines. Turk J Gastroenterol 2017; 28(Suppl 2); S84-S89. Available at: https://www.turkjgastroenterol.org/sayilar/304/buyuk/S84-S89.pdf 
  3. Tseng, C. H., & Lai, M. M. Hepatitis delta virus RNA replication.Viruses1(3), 818–831.  

Hepatitis B Foundation: Now Part of the NORD Rare Disease Community!

We’re pleased to announce that the Hepatitis B Foundation (HBF) is now a member of NORD, the National Organization for Rare Disorders, representing our program, Hepatitis Delta Connect. NORD is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them. We will join 280 other patient organization members, all committed to the identification, treatment, and cure of rare disorders through programs of education, advocacy, research, and patient services.

Although globally, hepatitis delta is estimated to affect 15-20 million people, in the U.S. it is classified as a rare disease, as it is estimated to affect less than 200,000 people. The complicated nature of the virus and limited prioritization contribute to the gap in awareness, resources, testing practices and adequate treatments for hepatitis B and delta coinfection. Joining NORD will help amplify our voice, raise awareness about hepatitis delta in people living with chronic hepatitis B, provider and pharmaceutical communities and contribute to health policy efforts.

Hepatitis Delta Connect has previously been active with NORD through participating in rare disease Twitter chats and presenting a poster at the NORD Rare Action Summit in October 2018. We’re very excited to be a part of the coalition, and to be spreading awareness about hepatitis delta!

For more information about Hepatitis Delta Connect, visit www.hepdconnect.org or email connect@hepdconnect.org.