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Category Archives: HDV

What You Need to Know About the 2022 Liver Meeting and How It Relates to Hepatitis Delta

 

 

 

 

This year, the annual Liver Meeting, hosted by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), was held in Washington, D.C. The featured presentations included new innovations in liver transplant surgery, disease modeling (which is a process that uses cells to show how a disease develops and to test possible treatment approaches), and drug development. While an effective, functional cure for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still 5-10 years away, researchers, scientists, healthcare providers, and people with lived experience all came together and agreed that more needs to be done to reduce the burden of liver diseases and improve health outcomes now. One highlight of the meeting was Dr. Francis Collins, former director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health and special advisor to President Biden, hosting a special session to introduce a national hepatitis C elimination plan for the U.S. Unfortunately, this plan is focused on hepatitis C. As a response, the Hepatitis B Foundation will soon send an advocacy letter pushing for the inclusion of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta in this plan. Make sure you are signed up for our Action Center alerts to stay engaged with hepatitis B advocacy efforts.

Of particular note at this year’s meeting were the presence of many patient advocates and people with lived experience, and an increased focus on hepatitis delta. One important hepatitis delta poster presentation was delivered by Dr. Tatyana Kushner of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, entitled “HDV Patient Perspective: The Impact of Disease and Current Unmet Needs.” By including the perspectives of people living with hepatitis delta virus (HDV), this study aimed to empower the patient community. Dr. Kushner and her colleagues collected data on people’s quality of life to identify unmet needs, barriers and gaps in HDV care (including disease management and access-to-care inequities).

The researchers found that a person’s care is affected in two ways: In the care they receive for their clinical diagnosis and their emotional journey after diagnosis. The participants’ experience of care was often negatively impacted by having a delayed HDV diagnosis, and limited access to specialized care and tolerable treatment options. Findings describe that the lack of specific and acceptable treatment options for hepatitis delta left people with little hope, which put an emotional burden on their life post-diagnosis. Due to the gaps in providers’ knowledge of HDV, participants held little trust in their healthcare providers. The study participants also shared that they suffered emotionally due to the stigma attached to their diagnosis.

Dr. Kushner and her colleagues call for an increased effort to educate healthcare providers on hepatitis delta, as their lack of HDV-specific knowledge drives health disparities or differences between groups, where one group is more burdened by a disease than the other. These are driven by unequal opportunities to achieve good health (CDC, 2020). Health disparities are preventable, and educating providers is the first step to overcoming these inequalities. Educating providers on HDV will lead to more rapid identification of the disease, as they will have a better understanding of the signs, symptoms and risk factors for hepatitis delta. Increasing advocacy efforts for point-of-care testing for both HBV and HDV in the U.S. will increase levels of testing and earlier identification of people at risk for the diseases. Timely diagnosis allows for people to be linked to specialty care earlier, ultimately improving health outcomes. Improving community awareness of HDV will combat stigma and likely reduce testing hesitancy, which can improve health outcomes. The researchers call for drug developers to meet the needs of the patient community by developing tolerable and hepatitis delta-specific treatments.

In terms of drug development, researchers presented on antiviral treatments for people living with HDV and discussed preferred outcomes of treatment, based on what they believed to be most helpful to each individual’s physical health. To understand these treatment considerations, it is important to review how HDV functions. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) uses a person’s RNA (ribonucleic acid) to produce and replicate the virus, so high HDV RNA levels in the blood indicate severe infection, and low or undetectable HDV RNA levels indicate that the virus is not rapidly reproducing (Stephenson-Tsoris & Casey, 2022). A virological response is defined as a long-term period of low-level replication that leads to undetectable HDV RNA levels in the blood six months after stopping treatment, and this indicates viral suppression (Yamashiro et al., 2004). A biochemical response is defined as normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels after antiviral treatment (Kim et al., 2022). When liver cells are damaged, they release ALT into the bloodstream, so high levels of ALT indicate that one’s liver is diseased or damaged (MedlinePlus, n.d.). ALT normalization is considered a good indicator that antiviral therapy is working because it means that there is less liver damage, liver disease is less severe, and people living with HBV/HDV are at less risk of harm (Kim et al., 2022).

One study of interest from the meeting was the D-LIVR study by Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc.: Lonafarnib Global Study in Chronic Hepatitis Delta. This study consisted of 400 participants, who were all on treatment for 48 weeks, then followed up with researchers 24 weeks after treatment. In total, 50 participants received pegylated interferon (Peg IFN) treatment for 48 weeks; 125 participants received a combination of Lonafarnib, Ritonavir and Peg IFN; and 175 participants received the oral antiviral therapy Lonafarnib and Ritonavir. There were also 50 people on a placebo treatment. A placebo is a harmless pill that has no effect on a person, and is often used in clinical trials to test the effectiveness of a specific treatment being studied, in this case, Peg IFN, Lonafarnib and Ritonavir (Harvard Health Publishing, 2021). The researchers decided that they wanted to see a decline in HDV RNA (virologic response) and normalization of ALT (biochemical response) at week 48 as their study’s main outcome or proof that the treatment could work. In this study, an acceptable virologic response was defined as a “2log decline of HDV RNA levels,” which means they wanted to see HDV RNA levels decrease by 99% from the original levels that were measured before starting treatment (Wikipedia, n.d.).

Pegylated interferon (Peg IFN) is a protein-based medication that prompts the body to activate its natural immune system (induce innate antiviral response) (Zhang & Urban, 2021; Drugbank, n.d.). For Peg IFN-based treatments, researchers determine that undetectable HDV RNA six months after stopping treatment is desirable. However, researchers emphasize the importance of yearly HDV RNA post-treatment screening to monitor for viral relapses after treatment. For long-term treatment (over 48 weeks), a 99% reduction of HDV RNA concentration levels is an appropriate virologic response for non-interferon-based treatments, but more studies must be done to establish whether a person living with hepatitis delta is actually benefiting from the treatment (this is called clinical benefit). When establishing the clinical benefits for non-interferon-based treatments (or any new treatment), researchers can measure delays in disease progression or improvement of signs and symptoms of the disease, which includes symptom relief, improved functioning and improved survival rates (Lee, n.d).

Based on a variety of extensive studies (not just D-LIVR), the researchers decided to combine virologic and biochemical responses to try to demonstrate the clinical benefit of using ongoing antiviral treatment as a functional cure for hepatitis delta. They concluded that acceptable endpoints for HDV treatment studies include undetectable HDV RNA six months after stopping treatment, the loss of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and ALT normalization in people living with chronic hepatitis delta. This can also be considered a functional cure since there are undetectable levels of HBsAg and HDV RNA in the blood for a sustained period of time, even after finishing treatment (Wong et al., 2022).

While there is still time before we overcome the burden of hepatitis delta, the presentations from The Liver Meeting show us that researchers and scientists are constantly working to improve the lives of people living with hepatitis delta. Development toward a functional cure is progressing, and advocates are incorporating peoples’ lived experiences and perspectives into drug development and education. Collaboration between all these groups is the best way to move forward in the fight against hepatitis delta.

For more information on hepatitis delta, you can visit the Hepatitis Delta Connect website or review this hepatitis delta fact sheet.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Health disparities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/index.htm 

Drugbank. (n.d.). Peginterferon alfa-2a. Drugbank. https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB00008

Harvard Health Publishing. (2021, December 13). The power of the placebo effect. Harvard Health Publishing, Harvard Medical School. https://www.health.harvard.edu/mental-health/the-power-of-the-placebo-effect 

Kau, A., Vermehren, J., & Sarrazin, C. (2008). Treatment predictors of a sustained virologic response in hepatitis B and C. Journal of Hepatology, 49(4), 634-651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2008.07.013

Kim, S. H., Cho, E. J., Jang, B. O., Lee, K., Choi, J. K., Choi, G. H., Lee, J. H., Yu, S. J., Kim, Y. J., Lee, Y. B., Yoon, J. H., Kim, J. W., Jeong, S. H., & Jang, E. S. (2022). Comparison of biochemical response during antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, 42(2), 320–329. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.15086 

Lee, J. (n.d.). Defining Clinical Benefit in Clinical Trials: FDA Perspective [Presentation]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. https://celiac.org/main/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/great3-07.pdf 

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). ALT blood test. National Library of Medicine (U.S.). [updated August 3, 2022]. https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/alt-blood-test/ 

Raman, S. (2022 October 25). Administration eyes national hepatitis C treatment plan. Roll Call: Policy. https://rollcall.com/2022/10/25/administration-eyes-national-hepatitis-c-treatment-plan/ 

Stephenson-Tsoris, S., & Casey, J. L. (2022). Hepatitis delta virus genome RNA synthesis initiates at position 1646 with a nontemplated guanosine. Journal of Virology, 96(4), e0201721. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02017-21 

Wikipedia. (n.d). Log reduction. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log_reduction

Wong, G. L. H., Gane, E., & Lok, A. S. F. (2022). How to achieve functional cure of HBV: Stopping NUCs, adding interferon or new drug development?. Journal of Hepatology, 76(6), 1249–1262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.11.024

Yamashiro, T., Nagayama, K., Enomoto, N., Watanabe, H., Miyagi, T., Nakasone, H., Sakugawa, H., & Watanabe, M. (2004). Quantitation of the level of hepatitis Delta virus RNA in serum, by real-time polymerase chain reaction—and its possible correlation with the clinical stage of liver disease. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189(7), 1151–1157. https://doi.org/10.1086/382133

Zhang, Z., & Urban, S. (2021). New insights into HDV persistence: The role of interferon response and implications for upcoming novel therapies. Journal of Hepatology, 74(3), P686-699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.11.032

What’s the Difference?: Herbal Remedies and Supplements vs. Western Medicine

What’s the Difference?: Herbal Remedies and Supplements vs. Western Medicine

Around the world, people consider the use of herbal remedies or supplements as a natural treatment for hepatitis B and/or D infection. These natural remedies have historically been advertised to boost the immune system and improve liver health. Herbal remedies or supplements are described as products made from botanicals or plants used to treat diseases and maintain health. They can be produced in a variety of forms including liquid extracts, teas, tablets/capsules, bath salts, oils, and ointments4.

Why do people choose to use herbal remedies?

The use of these products over time has social-cultural influences related to the distrust of and unfamiliarity with western medicine for management of hepatitis B or D infection. While herbal remedies have been used widely across cultures and contexts, patterns of racism, medical mistreatment, and inadequate delivery of care in western medicine have influenced the present state of treatment practices. In response to these barriers to sensitive and effective health care delivery, many groups such as Hmong and African communities often rely on herbal remedies and supplements to treat medical conditions and ease suffering.

Silymarin, milk thistle, and Kampo medicine

The distrust of western medicine has contributed to more widespread use of supplements such as silymarin (milk thistle) and Kampo medicine, as alternatives to manage hepatitis B or D infection. Many people believe that Silymarin can improve liver health through its antioxidant and free radical-fighting properties. Traditional Kampo medicine has been used for over 2,000 years to treat a variety of diseases including hepatitis B. One herbal treatment that is frequently used is bupleurum which many people believe can protect the liver or heal liver damage. Despite possible liver health benefits, neither supplement is a treatment for hepatitis B or D and may sometimes cause further harm to the liver4. It is important to note that there is presently no cure for hepatitis B.

False claims and bad interactions

Additionally, several alternative medicine companies often make false claims and testimonials to convince people to purchase expensive alternative treatments with false promises that are not based on scientific evidence. Herbal remedies and supplements may also interact with certain medications prescribed for those with hepatitis B and D, so it is important to seek the advice of a health care professional before use of any of these products3,4.

Strides in western health care

The long-standing hesitancy to participate in western health care is well-reasoned and firmly rooted in past wrongdoing on the part of often fundamentally racist institutions. While the western health care system remains far from perfect, it is important to remember that many strides continue to be made to correct the misdeeds of the past, and conversations around health equity and the social determinants of health (including racism) are becoming more and more common. Meanwhile, research has found that beliefs and misconceptions around western medicine can delay care and increase morbidity rates of hepatitis B in high-risk communities2.

It is vital for those living with hepatitis B or D to stay informed with scientific knowledge about supplements and herbal treatments to ensure these products are effective and safe in their daily life. The coordination of hepatitis B and D care by providers must do better to support those impacted by the viruses, in a way that is culturally sensitive and not dismissive of the harm that has been inflicted on communities of color and immigrant communities, who are more likely to be affected by hepatitis B and D1.  Health care professionals and other service providers must continually work to improve their cultural humility. In addition, health care institutions practicing western medicine must work harder to ensure care is equitable and safe, and to center the voices, stories, and insights of community members in their work to repair the impacts of structural racism and medical mistreatment that have caused such deep distrust in western medical treatments.

To learn more about effective hepatitis B and D medications, check out our Drug Watch page!

Disclaimer: Herbal products are not U.S. FDA-approved, and the Hepatitis B Foundation cannot endorse the usage of such products that lack regulation and scientific evidence to deem them both effective and safe.

References

  1. El-Serag, H., McGlynn, K. A., Graham, G. N., So, S., Howell, C. D., Fang, T., … & Thiel, T. K. (2010). Achieving health equity to eliminate racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in HBV-and HCV-associated liver disease. The Journal of Family Practice, 59(4 Suppl), S37.
  2. Mukhtar, N. A., Evon, D. M., Yim, C., Lok, A. S., Lisha, N., Lisker-Melman, M., … & Khalili, M. (2021). Patient knowledge, beliefs and barriers to hepatitis B Care: results of a multicenter, multiethnic patient survey. Digestive diseases and sciences, 66(2), 434-441.
  3. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health website. Using dietary supplements wisely. (2019). Using dietary supplements wisely. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/using-dietary-supplements-wisely.
  4. US Food and Drug Administration. (2017). Information for consumers on using dietary supplements. https://www.fda.gov/food/dietary-supplements/information-consumers-using-dietary-supplements.

Results from Hepatitis Delta Clinical Trials Announced at International Liver Congress 2022

London, UK was the host city for this year’s annual International Liver Congress (ILC), the yearly meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), which took place from June 22nd-26th. This meeting provides an opportunity for those working to address liver diseases around the world to gather in one location and exchange ideas, present research, and work to advance diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and elimination of these serious conditions. This year’s meeting saw significant attention given to hepatitis delta, as new treatments continue to move through the pipeline and more widespread approval for prescription of current treatments is sought. Below is a quick snapshot of some of the presentations!

The US-based pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences, Inc. demonstrated with results from a Phase 3 clinical trial that treatment with Hepcludex (bulevirtide), the first medication ever approved for hepatitis delta (HDV), has been shown to achieve significant response in chronic HDV. After 48 weeks, 48% of study participants who received different doses of treatment with Hepcludex achieved virological response (meaning a decline in hepatitis delta viral load, ALT normalization, and a change in liver stiffness), compared to only 2% of those who had not received any treatment. When compared to results from clinical trials after 24 weeks, response rates to HDV only improved, showing the drug to be even more effective over time. Throughout the clinical trials, there have been no adverse events reported that are attributable to this treatment.

Hepcludex has also been found to have a positive impact on the quality of life of individuals living with hepatitis delta, and their overall ability to manage the condition. There were improvements found in health distress, performance of daily activities related to hepatitis, emotional impact of hepatitis, and ability to work. This data reinforces the efficacy and safety of Hepcludex and hopefully strengthens the case for approving the drug in more parts of the world.

“As the most severe form of viral hepatitis, HDV presents a significant disease burden with high healthcare-related costs and until recently, no approved treatment options,” said Heiner Wedemeyer, MD, Director, Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology at Hannover Medical School, and principal investigator of the study. “These results presented at ILC 2022 not only highlight the important clinical role that bulevirtide has to play as a safe and effective treatment option for chronic HDV, but critically also demonstrate that with prolonged treatment, we can achieve higher response rates so we can better manage this rare, life-threatening disease in more people.”

Presently, Hepcludex has been conditionally approved by the European Commission for prescription in France, Germany, and Austria. It has not yet been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or in other countries. A Biologics License Application was submitted by Gilead to the FDA in late 2021 for injection of 2mg of Hepcludex to treat adults with HDV and compensated liver disease. Hepcludex had previously been granted Breakthrough Therapy and Orphan Drug designations by the FDA and PRIority MEdicines (PRIME) scheme eligibility by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

The second company to present their research findings at the ILC was US-based Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. The two primary hepatitis delta drugs that they have in the pipeline are called lonafarnib and peginterferon lambda. One abstract presentation indicated that peginterferon lambda (lambda) had better antiviral activity and tolerability than peginterferon alfa (the previous version of this drug that has been used as the only somewhat effective, but off-label treatment for hepatitis delta since the early 1980s). Lambda has been shown to block production of new hepatitis delta virus very effectively. Additionally, lambda in combination with lonafarnib was found to lower levels of HDV RNA and decrease its production and release, more effectively than lambda by itself. Patterns in HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen, and ALT were also observed as part of this study. In its Phase 3 D-LIVR study, which is assessing the safety and efficacy of lonafarnib in combination with ritonavir, with and without peginterferon alfa, Eiger has assembled the largest cohort of global participants in an HDV study, and therefore the largest body of data. Results from this study are anticipated by the end of 2022.

The final piece of big hepatitis delta news to come out of the conference was the announcement from Vir Biotechnology Inc. that they are beginning a Phase 2 clinical trial for VIR-2218 in combination with VIR-3434 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis delta. Initial data from this study is anticipated in 2023.

Hepatitis delta is now receiving more attention than ever before and there is only more hope as new treatments are created, investigated, approved, and made available. For a complete overview of hepatitis delta, including basic information, resources, clinical trial opportunities, and a complete list of drugs that are in the pipeline, visit www.hepdconnect.org.

References

https://www.gilead.com/news-and-press/press-room/press-releases/2022/6/treatment-with-hepcludex-bulevirtide-meets-primary-endpoint-and-achieves-significant-response-in-chronic-hepatitis-delta-virus-at-48-weeks

https://www.streetinsider.com/Corporate+News/Vir+Biotechnology+Inc.+%28VIR%29+Announces+New+Clinical+Data+From+its+Broad+Hepatitis+B+Program/20256465.html

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/eiger-biopharmaceuticals-announces-results-from-multiple-presentations-at-the-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-easl-international-liver-congress-2022-301576119.html

Recent Roundtable Discussion Highlights Hepatitis Delta Virus

April 21st and 22nd, 2022 marked the occurrence of a roundtable meeting solely focused on hepatitis delta virus (HDV), which was jointly hosted by the American Liver Foundation and the Hepatitis B Foundation. This was one in a series of events taking place this year to raise the profile of hepatitis delta, a serious coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) that is estimated to affect between 5 and 10% of people who are living with HBV. HDV is more severe than HBV alone, with a 70% chance of developing into cirrhosis or liver cancer if unmanaged, compared to an approximately 25% chance for those living with HBV alone. With approval of the first official treatment for hepatitis delta in Europe in July of 2020, expected approval in the United States later in 2022, and other treatments moving through the clinical trial pipeline, more is happening in the world of hepatitis delta than ever before. Despite the promising treatment landscape, the virus still remains significantly under-diagnosed (making estimation of true prevalence difficult), largely due to lack of awareness, low prioritization compared to other health conditions, and limited advocacy, and big questions persist about treatment equity, including access to knowledgeable providers, clinical trials, and available medications. The purpose of this roundtable was to begin a conversation among a diverse group of stakeholders about some of these issues, to bring attention to HDV and its potential consequences, to identify unmet needs in this area, and to prepare calls to action and next steps to address these needs.

Participants at the roundtable included individuals living with hepatitis delta, caregivers, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and representatives from community-based organizations. The conversation was very generative and really underscored some of the key issues that exist around hepatitis delta, including gaps in awareness and knowledge among medical and high-risk communities and limited access to and availability of HDV screening and care. These factors lead to under-diagnosis and under-surveillance, making the production of accurate data difficult, which in turn complicates advocacy efforts, since compelling data is often a key ingredient for policy change that might make screening, treatment, and linkage to care more available and accessible.

The ultimate planned outcome of this virtual event will be production of a white paper that will highlight key takeaways from the discussion, clearly outline unmet needs and priority issues for people living with HDV, and detail calls to action for stakeholders at every level to meet these needs and overcome some of the significant barriers and challenges that persist in diagnosing, managing, and treating HDV.

Another goal of the meeting was to begin to develop resources that can better support and engage the larger community around HDV awareness and advocacy – a first step toward this goal will be creation and dissemination of a visually appealing infographic, which will provide at-a-glance information about HDV and its estimated prevalence, transmission, prevention, testing, and treatment.

The white paper and infographic are expected to be complete by early summer 2022. The organizers of this roundtable meeting are hopeful that its outcomes will bring hepatitis delta virus more into focus for various stakeholder communities and generate more engagement and energy around this dangerous virus that has long been neglected and is not receiving the attention it deserves.

2022 – The Year of Hepatitis Delta

2022 is shaping up to be a big year for hepatitis delta, the rare but serious virus that can co-infect people who are already living with hepatitis B. As a quick refresher, hepatitis delta is a virus that depends upon the hepatitis B virus in order to survive and replicate – so only those who are already living with hepatitis B can become infected with hepatitis delta. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is believed to infect between 5 and 10% of people living with hepatitis B virus (HBV). HDV can occur through either a superinfection or a coinfection. A superinfection occurs when someone who is already living with HBV contracts HDV, in which case there is a very high chance that the individual will develop chronic (lifelong) infections of both HBV and HDV. A coinfection occurs when both HBV and HDV are contracted at the same time – when this happens in adults, both infections tend to clear within six months and there is only a 5% chance that chronic HBV and HDV will occur. Chronic HDV is particularly dangerous because it advances progression to serious liver damage and liver failure much more quickly than HBV alone – 70% of people diagnosed with HDV and HBV will experience serious liver damage within 10 years without intervention, compared to 15-30% of people diagnosed with HBV alone.

So, What’s Happening in the World of Hepatitis Delta?

The past 18 months have been very important for hepatitis delta research and drug development. In July of 2020, the European Medicines Agency approved Hepcludex, the first-ever drug approved for treatment of hepatitis delta, for prescription in France, Austria, and Germany. Hepcludex works by stopping HDV from entering and infecting liver cells (and is known as an entry inhibitor). In 2021, MYR Pharma, the German company that originally developed Hepcludex, was bought by Gilead Sciences, Inc., which is based in the United States, and which has since filed a Biologics Licensing Agreement for approval of Hepcludex by the US Food and Drug Administration, which is expected later this year. At this time, there is not a timeline for when Hepcludex approval will be expanded to more countries and parts of the world. Prior to Hepcludex, the only drug available for hepatitis delta management, which was never officially approved, was called pegylated interferon alpha. This drug, still in use today, is only effective in controlling HDV in about 25% of people living with the virus and has challenging side effects that can negatively impact quality of life.

In addition to Hepcludex, two other promising drugs are in clinical trials, both developed by Eiger BioPharma in the United States. The first of these is called Lonafarnib, which is being evaluated for how well it works to target the protein assembly process, which keeps new viruses from being created (it is known as a prenylation inhibitor). Lonafarnib, in combination with another drug called Ritonavir, is currently in Phase III clinical trials (the phase in which the safety and effectiveness of a drug is compared to that of currently available treatments). These trials are fully enrolled, and data is expected by the end of 2022. Additionally, Eiger is currently enrolling phase III clinical trials for Pegylated Interferon Lambda, which works by stimulating the body’s own immune system to fight the virus. For a full list of drugs under investigation for hepatitis delta, including one from Janssen Research and Development and one from Antios Therapeutics, visit our Drug Watch page.

Are There Other Clinical Trials Happening for Hepatitis Delta?

 Yes! There are clinical trials happening worldwide to test many of the drugs listed above and more. You can check out our clinical trials page here. This page includes a detailed description of each clinical trial, along with information about where it is being conducted and how to contact the principal investigator (or person leading the clinical trial). This page also includes a helpful graphic describing the clinical trial process and what it takes for a drug to move from an idea into the real world. It is important to note that not all of the trials listed here are for the purpose of testing a medication – some are observational studies to monitor what are called disease biomarkers, which are physical measures used to monitor the progress of a disease and could include tests of blood or liver function, for example. Clinical trials are currently happening in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vietnam.

When Will HDV Drugs and Clinical Trials Be More Accessible in More Parts of the World?

 This is unfortunately a difficult question to answer. Even though up to 10% of people who are living with hepatitis B are also living with hepatitis delta, there are not good systems in place to make sure that everyone who is living with HBV or who is at increased risk for HDV is tested and diagnosed, so there are not very accurate numbers about how many people in the world are living with HDV. Indeed, of the nearly 300 million people around the world who are living with hepatitis B alone, only 10% are aware of their diagnosis, so this number is undoubtedly far lower than even 10% for hepatitis delta. Without accurate information about how many people are living with the virus, it is difficult for drug and clinical trial developers to invest resources into studying or pursuing drug development or clinical trials for HDV.

Another problem is the many resources of time, money, and labor that are necessary for developing drugs, and preparing and running clinical trials. The development process for a single drug can take anywhere from 5-15 years and a much larger number of drugs fail to complete this process than succeed. Additionally, there needs to be some degree of existing infrastructure in a particular country in order to both support a clinical trial and ultimately to get a drug approved. Unfortunately, this kind of infrastructure is generally already established and easier to navigate in wealthier countries, so these are the countries in which clinical trials are generally held and in which drug approvals tend to happen first. Public health and clinical infrastructure is slowly developing and becoming more prioritized in different parts of the world and hopefully this trend will continue, but for the time being, the locations of clinical trials and approvals for important treatments point to the much larger issues of lack of access to health and healthcare in much of the world, that in turn stem from deep-seated poverty and inequity. Again, as health equity continues to be a focus of the public eye, these trends will hopefully begin to change, paving the way for greater access to healthcare for hepatitis delta, hepatitis B, and countless other health conditions.

What Is Hep Delta Connect’s Role?

 This year, Hep Delta Connect will continue its work to raise the profile of hepatitis delta, both in the United States and around the world. We are committed to building awareness through partnerships with community-based organizations, healthcare providers, and governmental agencies around the world and through dissemination of educational materials and programming. We hope to foster greater engagement of those living with and affected by hepatitis delta globally, more focused advocacy efforts to bring HDV into the spotlight, and increased screening, diagnosis, and management of HDV. We keep our website and social media channels updated regularly with program news and events – make sure to follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram and check out our website frequently! You are always welcome to connect with us anytime at connect@hepdconnect.org. We look forward to an exciting year of work on HDV!

Hepatitis B and Hepatitis Delta

 

What is Hepatitis Delta

Hepatitis delta is a liver infection that results from the hepatitis delta virus (also known as HDV) that causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis known to human beings. It is also the smallest virus known to infect humans. Hepatitis delta is unique because it is dependent on the hepatitis B virus (HBV) to infect and reproduce in liver cells, so those already infected with hepatitis B are at a greatly increased risk of developing hepatitis delta.

Since testing for hepatitis delta is not as widespread as it should be (everyone who is diagnosed with hepatitis B should also be tested for hepatitis delta), the exact number of people living with hepatitis delta is unknown. Some reports point to 15-20 million people living with hepatitis delta worldwide, but other studies have estimated that as many as 60-70 million people could be living with hepatitis delta around the world.

Co-Infection with Hepatitis B

Co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta can cause more serious liver disease than hepatitis B infection alone. This includes faster progression to liver fibrosis (or scarring), higher risk of liver cancer, and earlier onset of cirrhosis or liver failure.

There are two ways in which someone living with hepatitis B can become infected with hepatitis delta. One is through co-infection, which occurs when an individual acquires hepatitis B and hepatitis delta infections at the same time, and the other is through super-infection, which occurs when someone who is already living with hepatitis B acquires hepatitis delta.

A co-infection is less common and will often clear up on its own within six months, but sometimes it can cause very dangerous or fatal liver failure. A superinfection is more common and is the culprit of severe liver disease. As many as 90% of people with a superinfection will develop chronic (life-long) hepatitis B and hepatitis delta infections, 70% of which will progress to cirrhosis. This compares to only 15-20% of chronic hepatitis B infections alone.

Transmission and Prevention

Hepatitis delta can be transmitted in the same ways as hepatitis B, through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids. This occurs most often through the sharing of hygiene equipment; practices of bodily alterations, such as tattoos, piercings or scarification; unsterile healthcare practices; sharing needles, syringes, or other paraphernalia during injection drug use; or having unprotected sex. Although hepatitis B virus is most commonly transmitted from mothers to their babies during childbirth, it is believed that hepatitis delta transmission through this route is uncommon. Since hepatitis delta cannot be contracted on its own, only people who are already infected with hepatitis B or who are at high risk of contracting both viruses simultaneously can contract hepatitis delta.

A vaccine for hepatitis delta does not exist, but fortunately, the vaccine for hepatitis B protects against hepatitis delta as well! Just as with hepatitis B, family members and sexual partners of people living with hepatitis delta should also receive the hepatitis B vaccine to significantly lower their risk of contracting hepatitis B and hepatitis delta. For those who are already infected with chronic hepatitis B, the best way to protect yourself from hepatitis delta is to practice protected sex (with a condom) and avoid potential blood exposure.

All individuals who have been diagnosed with hepatitis B should also get tested for hepatitis delta. The test is a simple blood test. Hepatitis delta can be managed by a doctor – it is most dangerous when a person does not know they have it, making it that much more important to get tested!

 Who is at Risk

If you are living with chronic hepatitis B, you are at risk for hepatitis Delta. Groups at risk for hepatitis delta include:

  • People chronically infected with hepatitis B are at risk for infection with HDV.
  • People who are not vaccinated for hepatitis B
  • People who inject drugs
  • Indigenous people and people with hepatitis C virus or HIV infection
  • Recipients of hemodialysis
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Commercial sex workers
  • Individuals from countries or regions where hepatitis delta prevalence is high

Several geographical hotspots have a high prevalence of hepatitis delta infection, including Mongolia, the Republic of Moldova, and countries in Western and Middle Africa.

For Patients

If you are living with hepatitis B, it is recommended you get tested for hepatitis delta. Please ask your healthcare providers to be tested for hepatitis delta.

The Hepatitis B Foundation has resources for patients living with hepatitis delta.

Drug Watch – Drugs and Medications in Development for Hepatitis Delta

Clinical Trials – Clinical trials are research studies that test new potential treatments for a disease. Talk to your doctor about possible clinical trials that could be helpful to you.

Find a Doctor – Visit our Physician Directory to locate a doctor near you! It now includes a specific search tool to locate doctors that also manage hepatitis delta patients. For additional assistance locating a doctor, email connect@hepdconnect.org.

Other educational resources include webinar recordings, multilingual fact sheets, and frequently asked questions.

For Providers

Providers in the United States can request hepatitis Delta tests from Quest Diagnostics. It is recommended that you first call your local Quest representative to confirm that the location does this specialty testing.

Below is the coding list for hepatitis delta testing as well as quantitative HBsAg and hepatitis B genotyping.

  • Quest Test Code for HDV Antibody Total—4990 Set up 2 times/week
  • Quest Test Code for HDV Antibody IgM—35664 Set up 2 times/week
  • Quest Test Code for HDV RNA Quantitative PCR—37889 Set up 6 times/week

Quest does not currently offer a national test code for hepatitis delta antibody reflex to HDV RNA quantitative, but you can coordinate with the Quest commercial person that covers your account to possibly set up a custom reflex.

 

Authors: Beatrice Zovich and Evangeline Wang

Contact Information: info@hepb.org

 

 

Eiger Presents Clinical Trial Results at The Liver Meeting Digital Experience™ 2020

By Beatrice Zovich

The 2020 meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) in November offered the opportunity for scientists from industry and academia to present their findings from clinical trials, studying new medications for hepatitis B and D. Two such presentations were given by Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. who presented their findings about how well their medications peginterferon lambda and lonafarnib work, both independently and in combination, to treat hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and halt liver fibrosis. The results are promising and offer hope for those affected by HDV.

The two medicines under investigation in these studies work in different ways. Lonafarnib works by blocking farnesyl transferase, an enzyme involved in prenylation, the modification of proteins that is necessary for the life cycle of HDV. Peginterferon lambda, on the other hand, triggers immune responses that are crucial for host protection during viral infections. Lambda can also target liver cells accurately, thus reducing the effects of inadvertently targeting central nervous system cells and making it more tolerable to those taking it (Eiger, 2020).

Eiger’s first study examined how well peginterferon lambda and lonafarnib (known as LIFT – Lambda InterFeron combo Therapy) work together to lower levels of HDV RNA, 24 weeks post-treatment (Eiger, 2020). This was a Phase 2 study. Lambda was administered at a dosage of 180 mcg once weekly, in combination with 50 mg of Lonafarnib and 100 mg of ritonavir given twice daily, for 24 weeks. The results of this study found that 77% of the 26 participants saw their HDV RNA levels decline and reach a level that was either undetectable or below the level of quantification. 23% of these participants were able to maintain these levels for 24 weeks after treatment had ended. Both tenofovir and entecavir were started prior to treatment for management of HBV. The observed side effects of this regimen were mild to moderate and included mostly gastrointestinal issues or were related to blood chemistry (Eiger, 2020).

The second study found that peginterferon lambda caused the regression of liver fibrosis after 48 weeks of treatment in people living with hepatitis delta. Two case studies emerged from the completed Phase 2 LIMT (Lambda Interferon MonoTherapy) study (Eiger, 2020). In these studies, a total of 33 participants received either 180 µg or 120 µg of lambda subcutaneous injections weekly for 48 weeks. Results indicated that degrees of liver fibrosis and levels of HDV RNA declined below the level of quantification in some participants, even after 72 weeks in a handful of cases. In some instances, ALT levels decreased as well. Side effects were found to be mild to moderate and fewer than those experienced by participants who had taken peginterferon alpha in the past. Side effects were primarily flu-like in nature (Eiger, 2020). 

Therapies for hepatitis B and D will only continue to improve and become more precise and targeted as time goes by. Check out the Hepatitis Delta Connect website for detailed information on HDV, as well as current clinical trials and a drug watch page, both of which are updated regularly. (A brand-new clinical trial has just been added!) For more information about Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, click here

References

Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. (2020, November 17). Eiger Announces Positive Peginterferon Lambda – Lonafarnib Combination End of Study Results from Phase 2 LIFT HDV Study in Late-Breaker Session at The Liver Meeting Digital Experience™ 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.biospace.com/article/releases/eiger-announces-positive-peginterferon-lambda-lonafarnib-combination-end-of-study-results-from-phase-2-lift-hdv-study-in-late-breaker-session-at-the-liver-meeting-digital-experience-2020/

Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, I. (2020, November 16). Eiger Announces Case Studies Demonstrating Regression of Liver Fibrosis Following 48 Weeks of Therapy with Peginterferon Lambda in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) Infection Presented at The Liver Meeting Digital Experience™ 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/eiger-announces-case-studies-demonstrating-regression-of-liver-fibrosis-following-48-weeks-of-therapy-with-peginterferon-lambda-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-delta-virus-hdv-infection-presented-at-the-liver-meeting-digital–301173992.html 

New Hepatitis Delta Treatment Approved by European Commission

New Drug Approved for Treatment of Hepatitis Delta in Europe

A new drug to treat hepatitis delta has now been approved by the European Commission! The drug is called bulevirtide and will be marketed under the brand name Hepcludex. It was previously known at Myrcludex B. This approval follows a quarter century of research and development and is the first drug specifically for hepatitis delta approved in Europe. Due to the high prevalence of the hepatitis delta virus in Russia and the former Soviet Union, it has been approved for use there since the end of 2019, under the name Myrcludex. The European Medicines Agency recommended the drug for approval by the Commission at the end of May 2020 (German Center for Infection Research, 2020).

How Does It Work?

Hepcludex, developed by university researchers in Heidelberg, Germany, works as an entry inhibitor – that is, it prevents hepatitis delta virus (HDV) cells, and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) cells upon which HDV depends, from entering healthy liver cells. Both HDV and HBV cells are able to replicate and thrive exclusively in the liver because they need the bile acid transporter NTCP in order to do so. This transporter is the avenue through which HDV is received into the liver cell. Hepcludex works by blocking this reception process, so that the virus does not continue to infect healthy liver cells (German Center for Infection Research, 2020). The currently infected cells either die or are destroyed by the immune system.

How Have People Responded?

Hepcludex is an injectable medication given daily for 48 weeks. In phase I and II clinical trials, people seemed to respond well to this treatment. It seems that just a small amount of Hepcludex is needed, which is good news because it means that the normal processes of the bile salt transporter (NTCP – the receptor of the hepatitis delta virus) will not be widely disrupted (German Center for Infection Research, 2020). MYR Pharmaceuticals GmbH, which now has the license for Hepcludex, is currently in the process of running further phase II and larger phase III trials, in order to continue to determine long-term effects. Hepcludex has also been tested in combination therapy with PEG Interferon, which is administered weekly also via injection (Highleyman, 2019).

Does it also work for Hep B?

Right now, Hepcludex has been tested and works to treat people with hepatitis delta. Since hepatitis delta becomes the dominant virus in those co-infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta, clearing hep delta will not necessarily clear hep B as well. However, the curative properties of this drug for those only affected with hep B are being investigated, both alone and in combination with PEG interferon, and there was a loss of surface antigen (HbsAg) noted in 20% of clinical trial participants who were given this combination (Highleyman, 2019).

What does this mean for patients?

Research thus far indicates that Hepcludex can be more effective than interferon alone, the existing hepatitis delta treatment, which is usually not curative and has challenging side effects (Smith, 2020). Hepcludex is now available for prescription in Europe, although pricing schemes remain unclear. For updated information on pricing and availability, check with your doctor or visit the MYR Pharmaceuticals website here.

Clinical trials will continue to take place for this and other drugs. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies might experience difficulty in recruiting patients for hepatitis delta clinical trials because of a lack of awareness and testing – many people living with hepatitis delta worldwide remain undiagnosed. It is important for people at risk for hepatitis delta to be tested and linked to care if found to be infected. If you have hepatitis delta and are interested in participating in a clinical trial, you can search for one near you. To find a doctor to talk to about getting tested for hepatitis delta if you are living with hep B, click here. Hepatitis delta can often be managed and treated, and you are not alone! The most important first step is to know your status.

What does this mean for providers?

The exact number of people living with hepatitis delta around the world is unknown and estimates range anywhere from 20-70 million. Most of these individuals remain undiagnosed due in large part to a lack of testing and diagnostics. Stephan Urban, one of the researchers leading the effort in the development of Hepcludex has said that, in the United States, fewer than 5% of those tested for hepatitis B are also tested for hepatitis delta (Smith, 2020). It is true that in much of the world diagnostic tools remain unaffordable and so Dr. Urban and his team are developing a much less expensive and rapid test. If the capacity exists, however, testing is crucial for the management of this most severe form of viral hepatitis and all of the subsequent liver conditions that can develop from it. Additionally, as with all infectious diseases, vaccination of ALL people to prevent hepatitis B is critical. Click here for more information on hepatitis delta in general and here for questions and concerns.

References

German Center for Infection Research. (2020, August 5). First drug for hepatitis D has been approved by European Commission. EurekAlert! https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-08/gcfi-fdf080520.php

Highleyman, L. (2019, December 16). Combination therapies show promise against hepatitis D. Retrieved August 31, 2020, from https://www.worldhepatitisalliance.org/latest-news/infohep/3548132/combination-therapies-show-promise-against-hepatitis-d

Smith, J. (2020, August 20). Is Hepatitis D Healthcare Being Overlooked? LabioTech https://www.labiotech.eu/medical/hepatitis-d-ema-approval/

Know Your ABCs

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis simply means inflammation of the liver which can be caused by infectious diseases, toxins (drugs and alcohol), and autoimmune diseases. The most common forms of viral hepatitis are A, B, C, D, and E. With 5 different types of hepatitis, it can be confusing to know the differences among them all.

The Differences

While all 5 hepatitis viruses can cause liver damage, they vary in modes of transmission, type of infection, prevention, and treatment.

Hepatitis A (HAV) is highly contagious and spread through fecal-oral transmission or consuming contaminated food or water1. This means that if someone is infected with hepatitis A they can transmit it through preparing and serving food and using the same utensils without first thoroughly washing their hands. Symptoms of HAV include jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes), loss of appetite, nausea, fever, abnormally colored stool and urine, fever, joint pain, and fatigue1. Sometimes these symptoms do not present themselves in an infected person which can be harmful because they can unknowingly spread the virus to other people. Most people who get HAV will feel sick for a short period of time and will recover without any lasting liver damage2. A lot of hepatitis A cases are mild, but in some instances, hepatitis A can cause severe liver damage. Hepatitis A is vaccine preventable and the vaccine is recommended for people living with hepatitis B and C. Read this blog post for a detailed comparison of hepatitis B and hepatitis A!

Hepatitis B (HBV) is transmitted through bodily fluids like blood and semen, by unsterile needles and medical/dental equipment and procedures, or from mother-to-child during delivery1. HBV is considered a “silent epidemic” because most people do not present with symptoms when first infected. This can be harmful to individuals because HBV can cause severe liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer if not properly managed over time3. Hepatitis B can either be an acute or chronic infection meaning some cases last about 6 months while other cases last for a lifetime. In some instances, mostly among people who are infected as babies and young children, acute HBV cases can progress to a chronic infection3. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children will develop lifelong infection with hepatitis B if they are infected at a young age.

Hepatitis C (HCV) is similarly transmitted like HBV through bodily fluids, like blood and semen, and by unsterile needles and medical/dental equipment and procedures. Symptoms of HCV are generally similar to HAV’s symptoms of fever, fatigue, jaundice, and abnormal coloring of stool and urine1, though symptoms of HCV usually do not appear until an infected individual has advanced liver disease. Acute infections of hepatitis C can lead to chronic infections which can lead to health complications like cirrhosis and liver cancer1. Read this blog for a detailed comparison of hepatitis B and hepatitis C!

Hepatitis Delta (HDV) infections only occur in persons who are also infected with hepatitis B1,3. Hepatitis Delta is spread through the transfer of bodily fluids from an infected person to a non-infected person. Similar to some other hepatitis viruses, hepatitis Delta can start as an acute infection that can progress to a chronic one. HDV is dependent on the hepatitis B virus to reproduce3. This coinfection is more dangerous than a single infection because it causes rapid damage to the liver which can result in fatal liver failure. Find out more about hepatitis B and hepatitis Delta coinfection here!

Hepatitis E (HEV) is similar to hepatitis A as it is spread by fecal-oral transmission and consumption of contaminated food and water1. It can be transmitted in undercooked pork, game meat and shellfish. HEV is common in developing countries where people don’t always have access to clean water. Symptoms of hepatitis E include fatigue, loss of appetite, stomach pain, jaundice, and nausea. Talk to your doctor if you are a pregnant woman with symptoms as a more severe HEV infection can occur. Many individuals do not show symptoms of hepatitis E infection1. Additionally, most individuals recover from HEV, and it rarely progresses to chronic infection. Read this blog for a detailed comparison of hepatitis B and hepatitis E!

Here is a simple table to further help you understand the differences among hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

Prevention

Fortunately, hepatitis viruses are preventable.

Hepatitis A is preventable through a safe and effective vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that children be vaccinated for HAV at 12-23 months or at 2-18 years of age for those who have not previously been vaccinated. The vaccine is given as two doses over a 6-month span1. This vaccine is recommended for all people living with hepatitis B & C infections

Hepatitis B is also preventable through a safe and effective vaccine. The vaccine includes 3 doses over a period of 6 months, and in the U.S. there is a 2-dose vaccine that can be completed in 1-month1,3. Read more here, if you would like to know more about the vaccine series schedule.

Hepatitis C does not have a vaccine, however, the best way to prevent HCV is by avoiding risky behaviors like injecting drugs and promoting harm reduction practices. While there is no vaccine, curative treatments are available for HCV1.

Hepatitis Delta does not have a vaccine, but you can prevent it through vaccination for hepatitis B1,3.

Hepatitis E does not have a vaccine available in the United States. However, there has been a vaccine developed and licensed in China1,2.

 

References

  1. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/index.htm
  2. https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/what-is-hepatitis
  3. https://www.hepb.org/what-is-hepatitis-b/the-abcs-of-viral-hepatitis/

 

Does Hepatitis Delta Increase My Risk for Liver Cancer?

 

 

 

 

 

The short answer is, possibly.  Although there is extensive research to support the role of hepatitis delta in accelerating the risk for progression to cirrhosis (liver scarring) compared to hepatitis B infection (1,2) only, strong data directly linking an increase in risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is lacking. It is known that coinfection promotes continually progressing inflammation within the liver by inducing a strong immune response within the body; where it essentially attacks itself (3), but the specific role of hepatitis delta in HCC isn’t fully understood. It gets complicated because although cirrhosis is usually present in hepatitis B patients who also have HCC, but scientists have not pinpointed a specific way that the virus may impact cancer development (4). There have been some small studies that have documented a correlation between hepatitis delta and an increase in HCC, but some analysis’s have even called the extent of its involvement in HCC as ‘controversial’ (5). However, other scientific studies may suggest the contrary.

Because hepatitis delta cannot survive without hepatitis B, and doesn’t integrate into the body the same way, it may not be directly responsible for cancer development, but it has been suggested that the interactions between the two viruses may play a role (6). It has also been suggested that hepatitis delta may play a role in genetic changes, DNA damage, immune response and the activation of certain proteins within the body – similarly to hepatitis B and may amplify the overall cancer risk (7,8). One of these theories even suggests that hepatitis delta inactivates a gene responsible for tumor suppression, meaning it may actually promotes tumor development, a process that has been well-documented in HCC cases (9,10).

Regardless of the specific impact or increase in risk for HCC due to the hepatitis delta virus, hepatitis B is known to increase someone’s risk, with 50-60% of all HCC globally attributable to hepatitis B (11). People with hepatitis delta coinfection still need to be closely monitored by a liver specialist, as 70% of people with both viruses will develop cirrhosis within 5-10 years (12). Monitoring may be blood testing and a liver ultrasound to screen for HCC every 6 months. Closer monitoring may be required if cirrhosis is already present, or to monitor response to treatment (interferon).

For more information about hepatitis delta, visit www.hepdconnect.org.

References:

  1. Manesis EK, Vourli G, Dalekos G. Prevalence and clinical course of hepatitis delta infection in Greece: A 13-year prospective study. J Hepatol. 2013;59:949–956.
  2. Coghill S, McNamara J, Woods M, Hajkowicz K. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of hepatitis delta (D) virus infection in Queensland, Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2018;74:123–127.
  3. Zhang Z, Filzmayer C, Ni Y. Hepatitis D virus replication is sensed by MDA5 and induces IFN-β/λ responses in hepatocytes. J Hepatol. 2018;69:25–35.
  4. Nault JC. Pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma according to aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;28:937–947.
  5. Puigvehí, M., Moctezuma-Velázquez, C., Villanueva, A., & Llovet, J. M. (2019). The oncogenic role of hepatitis delta virus in hepatocellular carcinoma. JHEP reports: innovation in hepatology, 1(2), 120–130.
  6. Romeo R, Petruzziello A, Pecheur EI, et al. Hepatitis delta virus and hepatocellular carcinoma: an update. Epidemiol Infect. 2018;146(13):1612‐1618.
  7. Majumdar A, Curley SA, Wu X. Hepatic stem cells and transforming growth factor β in hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;9:530–538.
  8. Mendes M, Pérez-Hernandez D, Vázquez J, Coelho AV, Cunha C. Proteomic changes in HEK-293 cells induced by hepatitis delta virus replication. J Proteomics. 2013;89:24–38.
  9. Chen M, Du D, Zheng W. Small Hepatitis Delta Antigen Selectively Binds to Target mRNA in Hepatic Cells: A Potential Mechanism by Which Hepatitis D Virus Down-Regulates Glutathione S-Transferase P1 and Induces Liver Injury and Hepatocarcinogenesis. Biochem Cell Biol. August 2018.
  10. Villanueva A, Portela A, Sayols S. DNA methylation-based prognosis and epidrivers in hepatocellular carcinoma. 2015;61:1945–1956.
  11. Hayashi PH, Di Bisceglie AM. The progression of hepatitis B- and C-infections to chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Med Clin North Am. 2005;89(2):371‐389.
  12. Abbas, Z., Abbas, M., Abbas, S., & Shazi, L. (2015). Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma. World journal of hepatology, 7(5), 777–786.