Hep B Blog

Where Can I Order Hepatitis D Testing?

By Sierra Pellechio, Hepatitis Delta Connect Coordinator

Historically, testing for hepatitis D, also known as hepatitis delta or HDV, has been difficult to access and often not commercially available. With the rise in awareness about hepatitis B and D coinfection, more tests are beginning to be offered by multiple labs for clinicians in the United States looking to test their patients. Because hepatitis D can only infect people who also have hepatitis B, the Hepatitis B Foundation’s medical director and leading hepatologist Dr. Robert Gish recommends testing all hepatitis B patients for hepatitis D. “Screening all hepatitis B patients will allow a better understanding of hepatitis D prevalence and its impact on outcomes and will identify patients who can be offered treatment within or outside clinical trials.”

The first step in diagnosing a hepatitis D infection is the HDV antibody total (anti-HDV) test. Patients who have recovered from or are currently infected with hepatitis D will be positive for the anti-HDV and will present high titers in later stages of acute infection and persist in cases of chronic infection. If the HDV antibody total test is positive, it should be followed by the HDV RNA (PCR) test to confirm an active infection. If this test is negative, a current infection is unlikely.

Testing hepatitis B patients for hepatitis D is important because when people with hepatitis B are exposed to the hepatitis D virus, 90% will develop a chronic hepatitis D infection1. Coinfection will alter treatment and management plans, because antivirals effective on hepatitis B do not control hepatitis D2. While the standard treatment of interferon is less than 30% effective in controlling coinfection, there are new drugs in development. With two of these drugs set to enter phase 3 clinical trials in 2019, it is more important than ever to identify coinfected patients and connect patients into clinical trials.

Until recently, only the anti-HDV test was widely available in the United States. In February 2019, Quest Diagnostics began offering HDV RNA testing, making it easier for patients and their physicians to access this more detailed level of testing. A complete list of labs offering hepatitis D testing is below.

Providers can order HDV testing from:

Quest Diagnostics (US)

Tests Offered:

ARUP Laboratories (US) 

Tests Offered:

Cambridge Biomedical (US, Limited States)

Tests Offered:

Mayo Clinic Laboratories (US)

Tests Offered:

Viracor (US)

Tests Offered:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (US & International)

Tests Offered:

  • HDV Antibody Total
  • HDV RNA
  • Genotyping

Disclaimer: This may not be a comprehensive list of all available labs offering hepatitis D testing.

Please note, if you are a patient in the U.S. and wish to be tested for hepatitis D, these tests must be ordered through a clinician.

It is very important for hepatitis B and D patients to be managed by a liver specialist who is familiar with managing coinfected patients. For assistance in locating a specialist near you, please visit our Physician Directory page. For additional questions, please visit www.hepdconnect.org, email connect@hepdconnect.org, or call our hotline at 215-489-4900.

References:

  1. Hooks, B., Billings, J., & Herrera, J. (2009). Hepatitis D Virus. Practical Gastroenterology.

2. Farci, P., & Anna Niro, G. (2018). Current and Future Management of Chronic Hepatitis D. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 14(6), 342-35

We Will No Longer Be Invisible

The Hepatitis B Foundation and the Hep B United coalition are excited to partner with the All of Us Research Program, a program funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance precision medicine – health care that is tailored to each person. All of Us will enroll and engage 1 million or more people across the country, from all walks of life, to contribute to research that could improve health for generations to come.

We are partnering with All of Us to increase representation of Asian American and Pacific Islander communities in biomedical research. Diversity and inclusion in health research is critical to understanding how certain diseases or treatments affect individuals differently and helping transform health care to be more customized and effective for each person.

In the U.S., over half of the 2.2 million people living with chronic hepatitis B are Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Join All of Us to help researchers better understand the causes and risk factors for chronic conditions like hepatitis B and make health equity a reality.

Visit JoinAllofUs.org to learn more about the All of Us Research Program.

Additional resources:

Fact Sheet: All of Us Research Program 

Infographic: All of Us Research Program 

Flyer : How do I sign up for this research program?

Valentine’s Day: Dating, Love, and Hepatitis B

Valentine’s Day is a day of celebration, but it can also bring about worries and stress. Some might feel pressure about buying the right gifts for their loved ones. Maybe you’re wondering if it’s too soon in your relationship to celebrate the holiday. We may not be able to help you figure out what type of candy your partner likes the most, but we can help you navigate the holiday if you or a loved one is living with hepatitis B!

Can my partner and I have sex if one of us is infected and the other is not?

One way that hepatitis B is spread is through unprotected sex. This means that certain precautions need to be taken if your partner is uninfected, has not been vaccinated, or has not completed their vaccine series yet. Precautions include using a condom correctly. Using condoms can also prevent other sexually transmitted infections, like hepatitis C and HIV, that can be harmful to everyone, but especially to those who have chronic hepatitis B. Please keep in mind that certain sexual activities carry higher risks of transmission because of tiny, often microscopic tears in the membrane that may occur and increase the chances of direct blood contact! If you believe your partner has been accidentally exposed, they should contact their doctor or a local physician to begin post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as soon as possible. PEP can prevent chronic hepatitis B if caught early enough, so it is very important to inform the doctor of a possible exposure soon after it occurs.

If your partner has already completed the 2 dose (where available) or 3 dose vaccine series, there is nothing to worry about! They are not at risk for transmission! The recommended schedule for the three-dose vaccine consists of a dose at 0, 1 and 6 months, and the two-dose adult vaccine is at 0 and 1 month.  Some individuals may be interested in an accelerated vaccine schedule. Please understand that an accelerated schedule entails four shots, not three. The fourth shot would be administered at one year and would provide long term protection. Those that choose a shortened schedule will not have long term protection from hepatitis B if they do not complete the fourth dose. And your partner should have their blood tested 4 weeks after their last vaccine dose to confirm that they are protected.

I’m scared to tell my partner that I have hepatitis B.

It can be intimidating to tell a person something so personal, especially if you are uncertain about how they will react. However, it is extremely important! Even if you are using condoms, it is necessary to let your partner know your status before becoming intimate. Once you tell them, it will be a huge relief!

So, how can you prepare for the conversation?

  1. Research: hepatitis B can be confusing, so it is important that you both are familiar with the infection, including how it is transmitted! Apart from HBF’s website, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has great information and handouts (in multiple languages!) on the infection. Consider printing one or two fact sheets out for your partner to look over.
  2. Take a deep breath: Don’t rush into the conversation. Take a moment to think about what you want to say. This will help you to stay calm and allow the conversation to progress. Remember to let your partner talk as well!
  3. Speak confidently: Don’t let hepatitis B speak for you! Let your partner know what you’ve learned about your infection and inform them that you are regularly visiting the doctor to monitor the infection. Speaking confidently can help keep them calm as well, and assure them that there is nothing to worry about!

If they react badly to the news at first, don’t worry! Everybody processes things at different rates and many people fear what they don’t understand. Try giving them some space and let them think about the information they’ve been given. You can also show them Heng’s #justB video; it tells the story of a man who fell in love and married a woman who is living with chronic hepatitis B and how he still supports her today! Also, remind your partner that hepatitis B is vaccine preventable! Three simple shots can protect them for life and they will never have to worry about the risk of transmission again!

Some people will never react kindly to the news, and that’s okay too! It may be disappointing, but don’t let it keep you down! You deserve someone who will accept and love you for who you are! Your chronic hepatitis B infection does not define you; it is just a small part of who you are.

For Partners of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients:

Valentine’s Day is a  time of love, and what better way is there to show love than by being supportive? If your partner is living with hepatitis B, you can show them you care in small ways! Perhaps it’s skipping the alcohol once in a while when you two go out with friends so they don’t feel alone. You can also try cooking healthy meals with them or exercising together a few times a week. Small gestures can say big things!

What’s the difference: Hepatitis B vs. Hepatitis E

With five different types of viral hepatitis, it can be difficult to understand the differences between them. Some forms of hepatitis get more attention than others, but it is still important to know how they are transmitted, what they do, and the steps that you can take to protect yourself and your liver!

This is the final installment in a three-part series. You can click the links to view more about hepatitis A and hepatitis C.

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver”. A liver can become inflamed for many reasons, such as too much alcohol, physical injury, autoimmune response, or a reaction to bacteria or a virus. The five most common hepatitis viruses are A, B, C, D, and E. Some hepatitis viruses can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure, or even liver cancer. Damage to the liver reduces its ability to function and makes it harder for your body to filter out toxins.

Hepatitis B vs. Hepatitis E

Globally, hepatitis E is a common liver infection. The World Health Organization estimates that 20 million people are infected each year. The virus has 4 known types: genotype 1, genotype 2, genotype 3, and genotype 4. Genotypes 1 and 2 are primarily spread through  fecal-oral transmission or by consuming food or water that has been contaminated and are only found in the human population. Typically, these genotypes are found in Africa, Asia, and Mexico. Poor sanitation and lack of clean water infrastructure contribute to the spread of genotypes 1 and 2.

Image Courtesy of Canva

Genotypes 3 and 4 are found in animal populations and can be passed on to a human if their meat is undercooked and consumed. Pigs, deer, boar, and chickens have all been found to carry the hepatitis E virus, but studies have shown that consuming undercooked infected pig (pork) and wild boar have commonly been the main source of animal-to-human transmission. Although less common, shellfish has also been found to carry the hepatitis E virus as well. Genotypes 3 and 4 are most generally found in China, Taiwan, Japan, and other developed countries.

It is important to remember that hepatitis B is not spread by contaminated food or water. You cannot get hepatitis B by sharing utensils or eating food prepared by someone who is infected. The hepatitis B virus is a blood-borne pathogen, which means that it is only spread through direct blood contact with an infected person’s blood.

Unlike hepatitis B, hepatitis E usually does not progress to a life-long infection. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the number of genotype 3 cases that lead to chronic liver disease are on the rise. In most cases, the infection typically resolves itself after a few weeks. Globally, young people aged 15-40 are considered to be the most at-risk population. Children under 15 generally have no symptoms or develop a mild illness. Young adults will often experience symptoms such as jaundice, vomiting, reduced appetite, and fatigue. At the moment, there are no specific treatment options for hepatitis E. Recommendations include getting plenty of rest and staying hydrated. In extreme cases, hospitalization may be required. Hepatitis E can also lead to fulminant hepatitis, or acute liver failure. Fulminant hepatitis most often occurs with hepatitis E infections in pregnant women and those with weakened immune systems.

Pregnant Women and Hepatitis B/E

Image Courtesy of Canva

Both hepatitis B and E can be transmitted from mother-to-child. This type of transmission is rare for hepatitis E patients but occurs frequently in mothers living with chronic hepatitis B. This is because hepatitis B is a “silent infection”; it often has no symptoms so many mothers do not know that they are infected. It is much less common for hepatitis E to be spread from mother to child because the infection typically resolves itself in 4-6 weeks. The danger with hepatitis E and pregnancy lies within the complications that it can cause. Research has shown that pregnant women have a higher risk of developing fulminant hepatitis than other patients, although more studies need to be conducted to discover the reason why this occurs. Hepatitis E tends to be most dangerous for women in their second and third trimester.  According to the CDC, maternal death rates from hepatitis E can reach 10% – 30% in the final trimester. Mothers can also experience severe illness, premature delivery, and the loss of their pregnancy.

With hepatitis B infection, approximately 90% of infants born to hepatitis B infected mothers will develop chronic hepatitis B and have an increased risk of developing liver disease and liver cancer later in life. This can be avoided, however, if certain precautions are taken once the child has been born!  By making sure the doctor is aware of the mother’s hepatitis B and having the delivery staff administer 1) the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and 2) one dose of the Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG, if available) in the delivery room, the newborn has more than a 95% chance of being protected for life! After the initial shots are given, it is extremely important to follow through with the vaccination schedule for a lifetime of protection.

Prevention

Hepatitis B can be prevented with a 3-dose vaccine or a 2-dose vaccine for adults where available! While you wait to complete the vaccine series, simple steps to prevent transmission include washing your hands thoroughly with hot water and soap, cleaning surfaces that come  into contact with blood with a diluted bleach solution, and not sharing objects that may have trace amounts of blood on them such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers and body jewelry. Although there is no vaccine approved for hepatitis E in the United States, there is one available in China. For hepatitis E, genotypes 1 and 2 can be prevented by thoroughly washing your hands after using the bathroom and by boiling water before drinking it. Transmission of genotypes 3 and 4 can be prevented by thoroughly cooking all meat and avoiding undercooked meats. Pregnant women should exercise caution when consuming pork, deer meat, and wild boar.