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Personal Reflection on Yesterday’s FDA Vaccine Advisory Panel Review of Dynavax’s New HBV Vaccine

 

I was fortunate to have the opportunity to represent the Hepatitis B Foundation at yesterday’s FDA vaccine advisory panel review of Dynavax’s new HEPLISAV vaccine for hepatitis B.  I was there for the public comment period on the second day of the meeting with my prepared statement. I was surprised to find I was the only one there for public comment. Since I’ve never been to anything like this, I don’t know if that is typical or not.  I think my personal story with HBV, and the message from the HBF was important for the FDA panel to hear, so they were sure to be reminded that there are real people affected by chronic hepatitis B.

There has been a great deal of good press about the new Dynavax vaccine. In studies it has superior immunogenicity when compared to the currently available vaccines. Immunity is generated in 2 doses given one month apart, versus the currently available vaccines where it is a three shot series over 6 months. This is particularly important to subpopulations such as those undergoing dialysis, and diabetic adults who are encouraged to be vaccinated against hepatitis B – a new recommendation by the CDC this year. It is also important to the general adult population, where it is found that 30-50% of adults may not complete the 3 shot HBV vaccine series making them vulnerable to infection. This  need for HBV prevention via a more effective vaccine, particularly in needy subpopulations was what was stressed in HBF’s public statement.

I do believe the panel was well aware of the importance of HBV prevention and one doctor made mention of the importance based on “the public comment”, so they were listening. Another doctor mentioned the burden of the disease not only globally, but also in the US. That is often understated.

The FDA panel met both Wednesday and Thursday. The public comment period was Thursday, and I remained there for the vote on two vital questions.  The first question was about whether the immunogenicity data was adequate to support the effectiveness of HEPLISAV for the prevention of hepatitis B infection in adults 18 through 70 years of age? The vote cast showed unanimous agreement in the efficacy of the vaccine.

The other question was about whether the data was adequate to support the safety of HEPLISAV when administered to adults 18 through 70 years. Five members said “yes”, 1 abstained and 8 voted “no”.

Prior to both votes there was a great deal of discussion amongst the panelists, and the representative from Dynavax who responded directly to questions.

Ultimately it came down to a few key points.  It was clear that the panel was impressed with efficacy or level of immunity generated by this new, 2 shot series. This vaccine uses a unique adjuvant. An adjuvant is a substance that is added to the vaccine in order to increase the body’s immune response to the vaccine.  In this case it was a nucleic acid versus a lipid – details of which I do not even pretend to understand. Although this new adjuvant was exciting based on the great immunogenicity data presented by Dynavax, it was also a source of concern because the panel was not sure if there was enough study data that represented all demographics. In other words, this vaccine performed really well, but they weren’t sure if it had been proven safe in different ethnic groups such as African Americans, Asian-Americans, and Hispanics. Since the US is a melting pot, this is important.

The other concern was that the vaccine had not been administered along with other vaccines. Because this vaccine is to be given to adults, they felt it was important that it could be given when an adult came in for their annual flu shot, or another immunization. Adults just don’t get to the doctor’s office that often! Although this was clearly of interest, it was not a deal breaker like the lack of safety data among all demographics. There was the suggestion to introduce the vaccine into the current sub-populations that were in particular need, but not much discussion beyond.

The votes were cast and the panel and the audience dispersed. Looks like Dynavax will need to complete further studies before the vaccine is once again reviewed by the FDA panel for approval. Personally, I believe there’s a real  need and a place for this vaccine, but of course safety always comes first.

Why Give the Hepatitis B Vaccine to Infants?

The CDC recommends a birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine for all babies. Pediatrician, Dr. Allison Shuman explains why in this informative video.

If you live in a part of the world where chronic HBV is at a medium (2-7% of population) or high prevalence rate (greater than 8% of population), your child is especially susceptible and at-risk for hepatitis B, with HBV transmission often occurring vertically from mother to child at birth, and horizontally from an HBV infected adult or another child’s infected body fluids to an unvaccinated baby or child. Please be sure that pregnant women are screened for hepatitis B. If mom tests positive for HBV, be sure baby receives a birth dose of the HBV vaccine and a shot of HBIG within 12 hours of birth. If mom tests negative for HBV, be sure that baby receives a birth dose of the HBV vaccine before leaving the hospital. Both babies of HBV infected and uninfected mom’s should receives shots 2 and 3 of the series according to schedule. Babies of infected mom’s should be tested at 18 months to be sure baby is hepatitis B free.

Please make arrangements with your doctor and the hospital to receive the HBV vaccine for your baby, prior to delivery, so you are sure the vaccine and/or HBIG are available at the hospital so prophylaxis can be given within 12 hours of birth. Please feel free to print and distribute  Chronic Hepatitis B in Pregnancy: Screening, Evaluation and Management (Part I and Part II) to your doctor.

 

Love Safely This Valentine’s Day

Please be sure to love safely this Valentine’s Day.  Are you living with HBV or hoping to avoid living with HBV? HBV is a vaccine preventable disease that is effectively transmitted sexually. If you are not infected with HBV, why not get vaccinated and protect yourself for life? The HBV vaccine is a safe and effective, 3 shot series. If you think you might be in a high risk group for HBV, talk to your doctor about first being screened for HBV before being vaccinated.

If you already have HBV, the vaccine won’t protect you. You need to talk to your doctor about your HBV status and whether or not you would benefit from treatment at this time (Not everyone needs treatment, but you need blood work interpreted by an HBV knowledgeable doctor to be sure).

Show the love by protecting yourself and your sexual partners by wearing a condom. They protect the mouth, vagina or rectum from infected semen if used consistently and correctly.  Keep in mind that the riskiest sexual activity is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. This is because the lining of the rectum is very thin and more likely to bleed leading to the possibility of infection with blood borne pathogens like HBV, HCV and HIV, along with other sexually transmitted diseases. Receptive vaginal intercourse is the next highest risk. Although the lining of the vagina is stronger than the rectum, inflammation, infection, or microscopic scrapes make the vagina vulnerable to unprotected intercourse. The likelihood of blood borne pathogen transmission with oral sex is least risky, but that is because the risk of blood contact is much lower. However, any kind of intimate sharing of bodily fluids presents some degree of risk of transmitting blood borne pathogens like HBV, HCV and HIV, and may effectively transmit other sexually transmitted diseases.

It’s important if you’re living with HBV, not living with HBV, or not quite sure of your infectious disease status. If you are living with HBV, properly wearing a condom keeps you safe from becoming co-infected with another infectious disease. No one wants a co-infection.  It complicated and dangerous for your health.  If you do not have HBV, then avoid getting an infection by you or your partner wearing a condom. HBV is vaccine preventable, but HCV, HIV and other STDs are not vaccine preventable. Considering the health and safety of yourself and your sexual partners is paramount. You may not know what they have, and they may not know what you have. Why take the risk? Love safely, get vaccinated against HBV, and wear a condom consistently and correctly. “Share affection, not infection”.

Considering the Transmission of HBV Through Tattooing or Piercing

This month’s Clinical Infectious Diseases evaluated the transmission of HCV through tattooing and piercing. It is important to note that HBV is also of great concern when considering a tattoo or piercing. Unless you are vaccinated against hepatitis B, you are at risk for HBV if you are tattooed or pierced under unsterile conditions. The net-net is if you have a tattoo or piercing in a professional parlor – one that follows infection control practices and uses single-use items whenever possible and sterilizes re-used equipment using ultrasonic cleaning and sterilization with an autoclave , there does not appear to be an increased risk, though additional study is warranted. However, tattoos or piercings in prisons, or other settings that are not performed under sterile conditions are a serious danger.

The process of tattooing entails repeated injections of tiny drops of ink. That’s thousands of tiny needle sticks per minute, and a very effective transmission route for blood borne pathogens like HBV, HCV and HIV. This does not mean getting a tattoo will expose you to infectious disease, but if you choose a tattoo parlor that is not well regulated and safely follows all infection control practices, then you greatly increase your risk of infection.

Here’s the problem with tattoo parlors in the United States. They are not carefully or consistently regulated. There are no federal regulations. For the most part they are state regulated, with each state having its own rules and regulations.  Regulated states require that tattoo parlors have permits, and be inspected. Who inspects the parlor? – Sometimes it’s the State Department of Health, and sometimes it’s the local health department, so the inspections vary. There are some states with local regulations within the state, and even a few states with NO regulations. That is worrisome and dangerous. What are the rules and regulations for your state on this unofficial list? (Please read the site disclaimer) Do the research on the rules in regulations in your state, or city before looking for a tattoo parlor.

What does this mean if you’re considering a tattoo? Your tattoo is a personal decision that will live with you for the rest of your life. You don’t want to contract an infectious disease that may also live with you for the rest of your life and potentially threatens your life.  Shop for a clean, parlor that treats each tattoo like a mini, out-patient procedure – with all infection control practices followed. You want a tattoo parlor that uses single-use needles, ink, ink cups, and gloves. You want to see these tools come out of their sterile packaging –right in front of your eyes. You want a tattoo parlor with a functioning, inspected autoclave so that re-usable tools such as tattoo machines and needle bars can be properly sterilized. You want a tattoo parlor that is clean and an artist that washes his hands and wears gloves. If the shop is dirty, keep looking.  Speak up and ask the artist questions about his shop and his infection control practices. Don’t forget to ask to see the autoclave. If anything makes you wary about the visit, look else-where.

 

China Approves Hepatitis E Vaccine – What that means if you have HBV

It was an interesting couple of weeks for viral hepatitis vaccines.  A potential vaccine for Hepatitis C appears to be on the horizon, and China announced it has approved a vaccine for use for hepatitis E virus (HEV).

What does this mean if you have hepatitis B?  I’m not sure. If you are living with HBV, it is clear that it is best to avoid coinfection with another hepatitis virus or infectious agent.  Coinfection will likely hasten liver disease progression and increase the risk for liver cancer.  At this time, the hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for those who are infected with HBV in order to avoid additional stress to the liver. Please keep in mind that the mode of transmission is the same for HBV and HCV, but is different for HAV and HEV.  It’s important to keep your viral hepatitis ABC’s straight!

Hepatitis E is a self-limiting disease, which is shed in the feces and transmitted via contaminated water and food – very much like HAV.  Although HEV is an acute infection like hepatitis A (HAV), it has about a 3% overall mortality rate and a much higher rate among pregnant women, and solid organ transplant recipients. It predominantly affects those between the ages of 15 and 40 years. HEV is endemic in Central and South-East Asia,  North and West Africa, Mexico and developing nations where there may not be access to clean water and proper sanitation and hygiene.  At this time, it is not prevalent in the U.S., but we are a traveling nation, and it’s something to think about when traveling abroad.

The HEV vaccine, developed by Xiamen University and Xiamen Innovax Biotech Co. Ltd. is a three-shot series : shot one followed one month later by shot 2, followed by shot 3 six-months after the third shot. The phase III trial results were found to be well tolerated and safe for the general adult population.  This would make the HEV vaccine a good choice for travelers in endemic areas who can receive adequate protection with a 2-shot series in one month.

However, these results for the phase III study were for the general population only and did not include children, adults over 65 years, pregnant women and those living with chronic liver diseases such as HBV or HCV.  If you are infected with HBV, it would make sense to be vaccinated against a virus that can cause additional harm to the liver, but at this time, additional research needs to be done ensuring the vaccine will benefit those living with hepatitis B or C.

Many Parents Request Delays in Vaccine Schedule -Why the HBV Vaccine is Important for Infants and Young Children

Last week’s report of a recent study shows that more parents are opting out or delaying some vaccines for their children, and the hepatitis B vaccine is one of those parents sometimes choose to skip or delay.  What is even more disappointing is that the majority of pediatricians polled were comfortable with an alternative HBV vaccine schedule for their young patients.

The unfortunate thing about HBV is that it is very effectively passed from an HBV infected mother to her child during the birth process. Children that are infected with hepatitis B at birth, or as a baby, have a 90% chance of being chronically infected for life.   Young children that are infected horizontally have up to a 50% chance of being chronically infected for life. Children living with HBV are typically highly infectious and very effective at unknowingly spreading the virus to little friends or family members. HBV is present in blood and body fluids and we all know how kids are fascinated by one anothers’ boo-boos, and half of them have some sort of rash or scrapes that are tough to keep covered at all times. The beauty of vaccination is that infants and little ones are protected when they are at day care and pre-school, and when they are playing with the neighborhood kids.  Protocols are in place, but accidents do happen and rules are not always followed. You may think your child’s world is HBV free, but but you may be wrong.  Is it worth the risk when there is a safe and effective vaccine available?

Later in life, HBV is effectively transmitted horizontally in the mode that is often associated with infectious disease – sexually.  We are all sexual beings and at some point sex will become part of our lives.  Will you be thinking about having your teen or college student vaccinated, or will you be like most of us and too busy to even think about it?  What about when your teen or college student comes home with a tattoo or body piercing they got at a bargain tattoo/piercing parlor?  No one likes to think about their children making impulsive decisions, but the reality is that most do.  They have lapses in judgment and they make mistakes. A parent can only control so much, but why not eliminate the chance of HBV infection later in life?

You might think you will deal with HBV if you are faced with it. Even if your child is infected, or playing with a child that is infected, there will be no notable symptoms.  That’s why they call it a “silent infection“. Your liver is a non-complaining organ so symptoms rarely appear unless your liver is in distress. HBV will likely go unnoticed for decades unless it is picked up with routine blood work, during a blood donation, or a blood screening. That doesn’t mean liver damage is not occurring over decades of infection.

Our world keeps getting smaller, and travel to exotic lands is common. The U.S. is a melting pot of countries around the globe – many where HBV is prevalent.  Do you know that 2 billion people in the world have been infected with hepatitis B and that 400 million are living with a chronic, life-long infection? That is 1 out of 3 people in our world that have had an HBV infection!  There are good treatments out there, but there is no complete cure.  Many live long, lives, but lifelong HBV puts you at high risk for advanced liver disease, liver cancer and death.  The stigma associated with HBV leaves many throughout the world unemployable, and even those in the U.S. may suffer from discrimination and judgment by others due to their disease.

People write to HBF and tell us their HBV story.  Many have no idea how they were infected.  It is not casually transmitted, but it is an infectious disease – 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV and 5 to 10 times more infectious than HCV.  The U.S. is fortunate to have a vaccine available to all children born in this country. Parents worldwide would give anything to have their infant vaccinated to prevent a lifetime with HBV.  Some countries have HBV vaccine shortages.  Many cannot afford the vaccine, and many are unaware of the vaccine until they learn they are infected. In the U.S. we have an opportunity to prevent a life-long infection with HBV with a simple vaccine.  Please don’t choose to delay or omit the hepatitis B vaccine from your child’s vaccine schedule.

ACIP Recommends HBV Vaccine for those with Diabetes

What’s new in the world of HBV lately?  Perhaps the biggest HBV story over the last week is the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) strong recommendation for those with diabetes under the age of 60 years to be vaccinated against HBV.  Diabetics under the age of 60 have twice risk of acquiring HBV than those without. The recommendations for vaccination apply to those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The sooner those living with diabetes are vaccinated, the better.

Those living in long-term care facilities that require assisted glucose monitoring are also at greater risk for HBV.  This increased risk occurs during the monitoring process, where the accidental re-use of lancets and needles may occur from one patient to another. It is imperative that infection control practices be strictly followed in this environment to prevent small, HBV outbreaks among the elderly in long-term care facilities. HBV vaccination is not recommended for the majority of those over age 60 because the HBV vaccine is not as effective in the frail and elderly population. The earlier in life one is vaccinated against HBV, the better.

Speak up and make sure your loved-one living in long term care and living with diabetes and/or HBV has a personal glucose meter, or that proper infection control practices are being followed at their long-term care facility.

Diabetes and hepatitis B are each challenging chronic conditions to manage alone, but in combination, they can be very complicated. If you are a diabetic with HBV, it is essential that you follow the recommendations provided by both treating physicians (for both diabetes and HBV), and that both are in synch with one another.  It comes down to you faithfully adhering to all medications prescribed, strict monitoring of both your diabetes and your HBV status as dictated by your doctor(s), and following all recommended lifestyle changes.  Be sure to keep your doctor apprised on new issues that may come up as a diabetic with HBV.

If you have HBV, and do not have diabetes, but have a family history of diabetes, take precautions now. Talk to your doctor and be sure to monitor your blood pressure, cholesterol, and weight.  Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise.  Know that risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, (greater than 45) and that your ethnic background may also be a risk factor. This would include Hispanics, African-Americans, Native Americans, and Asians.

Options for HBV Vaccine Non-Responders

 

Are you a hepatitis B vaccine non-responder? Approximately 5-15% of people who receive the vaccine are considered non-responders. This is especially important for health care workers, families living in households with people that have HBV, and others who may be at increased risk of exposure to HBV.  A vaccine non-responder is someone that does not build up an adequate immune response after receiving two, 3-shot series of the HBV vaccine.  In other words, they complete one series of the HBV vaccine, and follow it with a surface antibody test (HBsAb or Anti-HBs) 4-6 weeks following the last injection of the series.  If the anti-HBs titre is not greater than 10IU/l, than the series is repeated, preferably with an HBV vaccine from a different manufacturer, and the person is once again tested for immunity by testing for adequate anti-HBs. (See previous blog, “Got Hepatitis B? Keeping loved ones safe though HBV vaccination” for details)

Fortunately there are other options for those concerned with being an HBV vaccine non-responder. There is a higher concentration of the HBV vaccine recommended by the CDC that is used for patients undergoing dialysis, and for those that are immune suppressed.  It is a 40µg/ml concentration. If it has been one year or less since you completed the three-shot series of the regular concentration of the vaccine, you can try one intramuscular dose of 1.0 ml of the 40µg HBV vaccine.  If it has been more than one year since your last three shot series of the vaccine, you can repeat the entire three-shot series with the 40µg concentration of the vaccine.  Follow up with an anti-HBs titre test 4 to 6 weeks following the last injection to ensure it is greater than 10 IU/l, and that you have adequate immunity.

If you continue to remain a non-responder, you can try a series of as many as five intra-dermal injections, given every two weeks, using the 40µg concentration of the HBV vaccine.  Dose one consists of 0.10 ml of the 40µg/ml vaccine, followed by the same dose two 2-weeks later.  At that time an anti-HBs titre test would be drawn to check for immunity.  If there was not adequate immunity, a third-intra-dermal dose of the vaccine would be given two weeks later.  Anti-HBs titres would be checked every two weeks and the patient would be given another intra-dermal injection up to a total of 5 intradermal injections of the 40µg concentration of the HBV vaccine. Don’t forget to ensure that your anti-HBs titre is greater than 10IU/l.

Please note that the schedule for the series might vary depending on the study your doctor chooses to follow.  However, it is recommended that the higher concentration (40µg) of the hepatitis B vaccine be used for best results.

Got Hepatitis B? Keeping loved ones safe through HBV vaccination

If you just found out you have hepatitis B, or if you are adopting a child with HBV, you will want to ensure that all household and close contacts are properly vaccinated to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is not transmitted casually, so no need to worry about shaking hands, kissing, hugging, changing diapers and daily living.  HBV is transmitted through infected  blood and sexual fluids and requires direct contact of infected blood to an open sore (from microscopic to gaping), mucous membrane or orifice.  It is also transmitted sexually and via personal care items such as razors, toothbrushes, tweezers and clippers that may contain microscopic blood droplets.

Household contacts and loved ones are at greater risk of contracting HBV due to the daily logistics of life.  And of course accidents happen.  HBV may transmitted by borrowed razors, or accidentally touching infected blood. Getting vaccinated is the best way to keep everyone HBV free for life.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe, and effective, three-shot-series that protects you from HBV.  Typically when you get your HBV vaccine, you do not return to ensure that your vaccine was successful in generating an adequate immune response.  However, if you are living with a loved one with HBV, if would be good to ensure that you are protected.  All it takes is one follow-up blood test.  Ask your doctor to run a quantitative hepatitis B surface antibody test (HBsAb, anti-HBs).  Often HBV antigen/antibody tests are run qualitatively, which means you get a positive/negative or reactive/non-reactive response.  When you get a quantitative HBsAb test, it will tell you how much surface antibody you have.  An adequate titre is a value greater than 10 mIU/mL.  The key is to ensure that you have been tested at the right time.  Keep in mind that you could also have a standard, qualitative surface antigen test run because it will not be reactive unless it is greater than 10.  However, I have found that most people like to see the number if it’s an option.

This test needs to be run four to six weeks following your last shot of the three shot series.  If your titre is greater than ten, then you are protected for life.  If your titre is less than ten, negative or non-reactive, then you will need to repeat the series.  It is recommended that you try a vaccine made by a different pharmaceutical company for the second round.  For example, if your first vaccine series was completed using the Engergix B vaccine, then you would want the second series to be done with the Recombivax HB vaccine the second time. Following this second series, you will again need to be tested 4-6 weeks following the last shot of the series.

Approximately 5-10% of people are considered non-responders if they complete two series of the vaccine and do NOT produce an adequate immune response.  Sometimes age and weight can contribute to difficulty in building adequate immunity.  And of course each person’s immune system is unique, so there will always be some that do not generate adequate immunity for no known reason, while others with a suppressed immune system may also have difficulty.  The final thing to consider is whether the person considered a non-responder actually has HBV.  If you fall into this category, please be sure ask that your doctor test you for surface antigen (HBsAg), along with an HBV viral DNA test.

Vaccination is always preferable because it’s just easier and it works –  most of the time.  However, with simple changes a “non-responder” parent or loved one can dig right into life’s daily goings-on!  Follow simple precautions to keep you and your family safe.  There aren’t vaccines available for everything, so it never hurts to play it safe.

For those that had their HBV vaccines years ago, but were unable to test within the four to six week window, don’t be alarmed if your titres are below ten, or if you do not have a positive or reactive HBsAb value.  It is recommended that you repeat the series (you might see a little variation in viewpoints between booster vs. 3-shot-series) and then be tested within the four to six week window to ensure you have adequate titres.

At this time, HBV booster shots are not recommended, regardless of when you were vaccinated.  You may find years later that your surface antibody is no longer reactive, or is below ten, but you know that it was adequate after the 4-6 week period following your vaccination. Do not be alarmed.  Our amazing immune systems have something called immune memory, which continues long after detectable antibody in the blood.  Simply put, you may not have a lot of HBV antibodies circulating in your system, but if you happened to be exposed to HBV after your titres had waned, your immune system would go into over-drive in order to protect you from an exposure.  As long as you once built up an adequate response, you are free from HBV for life!

Infection Prevention is Everyone’s Business…That means YOU!

In the U.S. we have wonderful infection prevention procedures, clinical practices and standards of care in place.  There’s a documented protocol for everything from giving a simple injection, to surgical procedures, to the disposal of biomedical waste.  HCW and other appropriate personnel are trained and practices are implemented. They are constantly evolving. Despite all of these safeguards, the CDC is worried.  A couple of weeks ago it was a nurse doing diabetes training using the same diabetes testing device on multiple people, (one person one device) with not even a disinfecting process in between patients.  Unfortunately, this is not a unique event.  I scrolled through the last seven months of HBF Top Stories and noted the following events in the news:

You don’t have to root around too hard to find these incidences. Despite best practices and protocols, training procedures and safeguards, the people that perform these duties are not without error. Intentional negligence is rare, but unknowing negligence would not be surprising. Budgets are tight, staffing is reduced, and work loads are increased.  Personnel are tired and stressed, and they make occasional errors. It may not be right, but mistakes do happen.

This is where the above sign comes into play.  Infection protection is everyone’s business.  That includes YOU!  Speak up.  Let your voice be heard.  You see the signs in your doctor’s office “Ask me if I’ve washed my hands”.  Why not start there, and ask? Had I read the article, or thought about my endoscopy/colonoscopy, I would have asked about the equipment used for my procedure.  Shame on ME.

I’m not going to get a bloodborne pathogen like hepatitis B from shaking my doctor’s hand, as HBV is not transmitted casually, but procedures where trace amounts of blood may not be properly disinfected or devices disposed is a different story.  HBV is transmitted by direct contact from an infected person’s blood or body fluid to an open cut, mucous membrane or portal of entry of another person. A health care setting with blood, sharps, tubes and medical devices is an effective transmission route if there are infected body fluids.  Fortunately practices firmly put into place prevent nearly all such possible exposures. Regardless, these uncommon errors, could affect parents in nursing home environments, veterans in VA hospitals, patients getting colonoscopies, and all kinds of patients in various health care clinics and settings. Infection control practices are written, taught and implemented, but every once in a while, you’re going to get someone that neglects to follow the rules or makes a simple mistake.  This should not cause a panic among patients, but it is a reminder that mistakes happen, and sometimes it’s necessary for us to speak up and ask questions. Remember, infection prevention is everyone’s business.

Note: Please keep in mind that HBV is 100 times more infectious than HIV.  It is also more infectious than HCV.  There are no vaccines for HIV and HCV, but there is a safe, effective vaccine for HBV. Get vaccinated and be HBV free for life.