Nigeria, with an estimated population of 190 million people, has a Hepatitis B prevalence of 8.1% and Hepatitis C at 1.1%, based on a recent Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey(NAIIS) report. The NAIIS survey was a National house-hold based Survey that assessed the prevalence of HIV and related health indicators including the national prevalence of two additional blood-borne viruses: Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus. This gives an estimated number of about 19 million Nigerians living with Hepatitis B and or C.
The large population and relatively high prevalence rates of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, suggest that Nigeria should be considered a key country for hepatitis elimination efforts. Nigeria’s population was estimated at over 190 million in 2017, and growing rapidly, with projections suggesting it will surpass the United States to become the third most populous country in the world by 2050
The Journey to Hepatitis Elimination in Nigeria
In 2018, Patient groups and members of the World Hepatitis Alliance under the umbrella of the Civil Society Network on viral hepatitis in Nigeria partnered with the Federal Ministry of Health, and World Health Organization (WHO) to organize the 1st Nigeria Hepatitis Summit in Abuja, FCT. The meeting was the flagship event in the country that brought together 26 states Ministry of health officials, academia, and civil society groups to engage on ways to accelerate hepatitis elimination in the country. The event was supported by Gilead Sciences and Roche Products Limited, with technical support from Clinton Health Access Initiative.
In May 2019 as a follow up to the Summit, the National Viral Hepatitis Control Program, convened the first Review meeting of all Hepatitis Desk officers across Nigeria in Abuja, with the active participation of the civil society groups in the event. The meeting was organized to review the Hepatitis Treatment facilities directory and share best practices among key actors.
In response to high prevalence rates and in alignment with the global effort towards elimination, The Nigerian Ministry of Health developed the National Viral Hepatitis Strategic Plan 2016 to 2020, which maps out actions to put Nigeria on the path of hepatitis elimination. National guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of viral hepatitis B and C were also developed and published in 2016, which centre on firmly establishing the management of viral hepatitis as part of universal health coverage. Although there is a paucity of data on modes of viral hepatitis transmission within Nigeria, local intelligence suggests that there are some modes of transmission that are particularly relevant, including mother-to-child transmission, healthcare related transmission due to poor infection control and traditional cultural practices, including scarification, female genital mutilation, male circumcision, and uvulectomy.
However, whilst this political will and strategic direction are promising, there remain substantial challenges to the realisation of these plans and the attainment of elimination goals in Nigeria.
Although there have been efforts to work towards universal health coverage in Nigeria, the health system has limited funding, and there is a need for coordination between the levels of government.
Challenges to accessing health care in Nigeria
Although guidelines and strategic direction have been developed to guide Nigeria’s response to viral hepatitis, important barriers remain in place, which must be surmounted to reach elimination targets. These include geographical and financial barriers to accessing testing and treatment and the availability of alternative tests and treatment providers that lack connection with the health system and efficacy for treatment outcomes.
Service barriers to hepatitis care
The allocation of health care resources, including the health care workforce, in Nigeria, is skewed towards secondary and tertiary services, which are predominantly situated in urban areas. Currently, the majority of hepatitis treatment in Nigeria is provided at tertiary level services, which are not easily accessible to large parts of the population.
Financial barriers to hepatitis care
For Nigerians that are able to access health care services, significant financial barriers remain to access testing and treatment for hepatitis. Despite an effort to develop a system of universal health coverage, the majority (approximately 70%) of health spending for health in Nigeria still comes from private expenditure. The majority of this is out-of-pocket spending, with only a small minority of Nigerians (approximately 4-5%) covered by health insurance. Costs of testing and treatment pose significant barriers to accessing viral hepatitis care, as tests, treatments, and vaccines must be paid for privately, and there is often limited availability of supplies.
This barrier of cost in accessing the hepatitis continuum of care is the primary drive towards quackery and unethical practices perpetrated by some organizations and individuals in Nigeria, providing alternative herbal and relatively cheaper treatment options to vulnerable and gullible patients.
The l ack of social and financial risk protection for Nigerians in accessing hepatitis continuum of care leads to high levels of poverty, vulnerability, and inequality in health
Elimination efforts in Nigeria
Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) to date is leading in providing access to affordable treatment for Hepatitis C patients in Lafiya, Nasarawa state, through its partnership with the government. The program provides affordable HCV RNA @ $35 and generic DAAs/month @ $80/month. CHAI through its access program has succeeded in negotiating costs of HCV diagnostics in some health centres across Nigeria, such as Lagos, Abuja, and Kwara, where patients can access affordable HCV RNA tests.
Similarly, Taraba State Government in partnership with Roche Products is providing a Pegasys based HBV treatment program for Tarabans. The Yakubu Gowon Centre in partnership with Taraba state government is also providing affordable diagnostics and treatment on HCV for patients at its treatment locations in Takum local council of Taraba state. The centre recently donated some doses of DAAs for patients.
Birth-dose HBV vaccination: Nigeria has a coverage rate of about 51% birth-dose HBV vaccination rate in the country. Sadly, there are no HBV vaccination programs for at-risk populations such as Men who Have Sex With Men, health care workers, People Who Inject Drugs, Incarcerated Populations. There are no government-funded harm reduction projects for People Who Inject Drugs in Nigeria.
Over 80% of activities of civil society and patient groups in Nigeria are on-demand creation, awareness and testing and linkage to care for patients. In June 2019, Centre for Initiative and Development (CFID) and other civil society organizations in Nigeria received a donation of 120 doses of DAAs at the African Hepatitis Summit in Kampala, Uganda through the African Regional Board Member.
Nigeria and the 2030 target
Unless something drastic is done, Nigeria and most of Africa stands the risk of missing the SDGs Goal 3.3 and the WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis Elimination target for 2030.
Nigeria, with its vast mineral, natural resources, and human capital, has what it takes to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. But what it lacks is the strong political will and financial commitment by governments at all levels to finance an elimination strategy!
- 1st Nigeria Hepatitis Summit Report, 2019
- World Hepatitis Summit 2015. New data shows relentless rise in hepatitis deaths.
- World Health Organization (WHO). Global Hepatitis Report 2017. Geneva: WHO, 2017.
- WHO, 2016.WHO Global Health Sector Strategy for the Elimination of Viral Hepatitis: 2016-2030
- NASCP, Nigeria Viral Hepatitis Strategic Plan: 2016-2020
- World Health Organization (WHO). Global Hepatitis Report 2017. Geneva: WHO, 2017:Availableat:apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255016/9789241565455-eng.pdf;jsessionid=9DECA1FF83BC4A8CAE3BE2649662?sequence=1
- Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Progress in hepatitis B prevention through universal infant vaccination – China, 1997–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2007;56(18): 441–445