Hep B Blog

My partner has been diagnosed with hepatitis B. Can transmission be prevented by vaccination?

Courtesy of Google Images

A hepatitis B diagnosis can be scary and confusing for both you and your loved ones, especially if you are unfamiliar with the virus. Hepatitis B is known to be sexually transmitted, and you may wonder how you can continue your relationship with someone who has been infected. The good news is that hepatitis B is vaccine preventable.This means that after you complete the vaccine series, you cannot contract hepatitis B through any modes of transmission; you are protected for life!

However, it is important to remember that the vaccine will only work if a person has not been previously infected. Therefore, it is necessary to take certain steps after your partner’s diagnosis to protect yourself from becoming infected.

The first step is to visit the doctor and get tested, even if you think that you do not have it. Since hepatitis B often has no symptoms for decades, testing is the only way to know your status. The doctor should perform the Hepatitis B Panel test – a simple blood draw that shows hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb or anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody total (HBcAb or anti-HBc). Looking at these three blood test results together will show if you have a current infection, have recovered from a past infection, or if you need to be protected through vaccination. Once you receive your results, this chart can help you understand what they mean.

Preventing Transmission through Vaccines:

If you test negative for HBsAg, HBsAb, and HBcAb, you are not protected from hepatitis B and are considered to have a high risk of contracting the virus from your partner or other means. To prevent transmission, you will need to begin your vaccination series as soon as possible.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a 3-shot series taken over the span of 6 months. The first shot can be given at any time. The second dose should be given at least one month after the first shot, and the third and final dose should be separated from dose 2 by at least two months and dose 1 by at least 4 months.  While there is a minimum amount of time required between doses, there is no maximum amount of time. If you miss your second or third shot, you do not have to start the series over again; you can pick up where you left off! If your partner is pregnant and was diagnosed with hepatitis B, extra precautions need to be taken to prevent transmission to the child. Two shots will need to be given to the child in the delivery room: the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG), if recommended and available in your country.  You can learn more about pregnancy and hepatitis B here.

After completing the series, a quick blood test called the “antibody titer” (anti-HBs titer) test can confirm that you have responded to the vaccine. This test, which should be given at least one month after you receive the third dose, will be greater than 10 mIU/mL if you are protected from hepatitis B. Like the vaccine, your doctor can administer the titer test.

Hepatitis B is spread through direct contact with blood. HBV  is also a sexually transmitted disease, so it is important to practice safe sex by using condoms throughout the duration of the vaccine series until the antibody titer test confirms that you are protected. While you wait for your body to create its defense, there are other steps that you can take to avoid transmission such as not sharing toothbrushes or sharp objects like razors.

The hepatitis B vaccine is the only way to fully protect yourself from the virus. Preventive measures such as using condoms can help prevent hepatitis B transmission, but without vaccination, there can still be some risk.

If you do not have a doctor or are worried about the cost of testing or vaccination, you can still get tested and vaccinated! In the United States, Federally Qualified Health Centers provide the hepatitis B vaccine at low- or no cost to individuals without insurance or with limited plans. You can search for a health center near you here. Internationally, you can search our Physicians Directory and the World Hepatitis Alliance member map to identify member organizations in your country that may have advice on doctors in your area. In addition, keep a lookout out for local health fairs and screenings; they may provide free vaccinations or testing for hepatitis B!

Talk with Dr. Block: An Expert’s Insight to A Hepatitis B Cure – Part 2

In the last Talk with Dr. Block blog post, hepatitis B expert Timothy Block, Ph.D., co-founder, and President of the Hepatitis B Foundation, sat down to discuss the status of a hepatitis B cure and how the foundation is contributing to the cure efforts. In this second installment, he provides an inside look into what a cure could possibly look like and a potential cure timeline!

This is the final post in a two-part series.

 We keep hearing that a combination of drugs will be necessary to cure HBV. What will these therapies look like?

 

A combination of drugs is likely not necessary for everyone. We already know that a small number of people who are treated with one drug can do fairly well.  However, most people will likely need a combination of drugs only because of precision medicine. Precision medicine allows a healthcare specialist or provider to develop treatments on an individual scale based upon an understanding of that person’s response to the disease. Some patients might respond better to specific drugs and specific doses due to differences such as age or underlying health conditions. We should take advantage of precision medicine and match specific drugs with the specific clinical state that someone is in. I do not believe that an immunomodulator, or medications that help to regulate the immune system, will be necessary for most people. It may, however, accelerate a cure and help us create a cure cocktail that will be effective in a large number of patients.

A functional cure for hepatitis B will likely be defined as the absence of the hepatitis B virus in the cells. This means that the person will have a sustained loss of surface antigen (HBsAg negative) and undetectable viral load (HBV DNA).  I look forward to a time where we have drugs that are both functionally and clinically curative. It is difficult to say if the cure will be in pill form, an injection, or an infusion. The hope is to eventually have a cure that will be taken orally for a short amount of time like the hepatitis C cure. More research needs to be done in order to truly determine what form the cure might take.

   How long do you anticipate someone will need to be treated?

A person would likely need to be treated for a few years. I base this time frame on the lifespan of an infected cell and how long I think it would take to safely replace the infected cells with healthy, uninfected cells. However, it is important to remember that people with chronic hepatitis B differ by the number of infected cells they have in their liver; some people may have most of their liver infected while others might have a smaller portion of their liver infected. The replication of the virus in the body and immune response also differ from person to person. Due to these factors, treatment will likely be administered by some form of response-guided therapy (RGT). This type of treatment means that a doctor will monitor the patient as they take the medication and adjust it as needed. Some patients will respond rapidly to the drugs and will be able to end treatment sooner than others.

 

When can we anticipate a combination of therapies resulting in a cure?

 

I’m very optimistic. At the moment, it looks like we might see the approval of one to two new drugs for hepatitis B or hepatitis Delta between the next 18 months and 2 years. The approval of these potential drugs is dependent upon the research conducted in clinical trials, but there are several drugs set to enter Phase 3 of their trials, which is promising! I expect that entry inhibitors – antiretroviral drugs that block a virus from infecting a healthy cell – will be among the first round of new drugs to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is difficult to say if they will be a cure, but they will likely be a big step in the right direction!

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is based upon recent research and updates in the field. Please note that timelines and specific information regarding hepatitis B drugs are estimations and are subject to change as new research emerges.

Ask An Expert: Managing Hepatitis Delta During Pregnancy

 

  What is the standard treatment for hepatitis delta and how long is it taken?

 

Although there are no standard guidelines for the treatment of hepatitis delta, pegylated interferon has been shown to be effective for some patients. It is usually administered via weekly injections for 1 year or more and is able to cure roughly 15-40% depending on the length of time that treatment is administered. Although many patients see declines in their hepatitis delta virus levels, most do not maintain long-term control following the conclusion of treatment.

Can pregnant hepatitis delta patients be treated with interferon?

 

Interferon has not been proven to be safe for administration during pregnancy and should not be administered. It may be harmful to the baby

 

What is the best way to manage a hepatitis delta infection during pregnancy, if interferon cannot be used?

 

A liver specialist may continue to manage the hepatitis B infection during pregnancy through antiviral treatment. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) recommends antiviral treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy for women with high hepatitis B viral loads.

How can hepatitis B and delta transmission be prevented to the baby?

 

Because a hepatitis B infection is required for someone to become infected with hepatitis delta, transmission from mother to child can be prevented with the hepatitis B vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend the first dose within 12 hours of birth, along with and a dose of HBIG (hepatitis B immunoglobulin), followed by the additional 2 vaccine shots; one at 1 month and the final one at 6 months old. The vaccine, along with HBIG and hepatitis B antiviral treatment (if necessary) greatly reduce the risk of transmission to the baby. In resource-limited countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by the additional shots on the recommended schedule. Once the vaccination series is completed, the baby should be protected for life against hepatitis B and delta.

If hepatitis delta cannot be treated during pregnancy, do most women have progression of their liver disease during pregnancy?

 

 While some women may see progression of their liver disease, due to the relative short length of pregnancy, most women do not show clinical signs of advancing liver disease.

 

What treatment should follow delivery? 

 

 

Following delivery, the mother may resume interferon treatment as long as she is not breastfeeding. Interferon treatment while breastfeeding could be harmful to the baby. As for all patients, keeping up-to-date on the latest hepatitis delta clinical trials could provide access to new, experimental treatments that may be more effective. For a global list of clinical trials for hepatitis D, visit the clinicaltrials.gov webpage.

It is very important for all pregnant women who are hepatitis B and delta positive to be managed by a liver specialist who is familiar with managing coinfected patients. For assistance in locating a specialist near you, please visit our Physician Directory page. For additional questions, please visit www.hepdconnect.org or email connect@hepdconnect.org.

Talk with Dr. Block: An Expert’s Insight into a Hepatitis B Cure- Part 1

 

 

This November, the Hepatitis B Foundation attended The Liver Meeting – an annual conference hosted by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD). Inspired by the enlightening presentations and conversations at the conference, hepatitis B expert Timothy Block, Ph.D, co-founder and President of the Hepatitis B Foundation, took a moment to talk to us about the complexities of the hepatitis B virus and the status of a hepatitis B cure!  

This is part one of a two-part series.

  Why is finding a cure for chronic hepatitis B so challenging?    

       

That’s the big question. A cure is only complicated until we  are able to figure it out. Once we understand it, it will be simple! Hepatitis B is curable, but finding a cure for it is complex for two reasons. The first is that it is not a simple matter of virology. The virus establishes itself in a stable nest inside of the liver – called the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) – and successfully invades the immune system. To do this, the virus enters a healthy cell and plants itself inside of the cell’s DNA – a component of the cell that allows it to function properly and produce more healthy cells. This makes it difficult – but not impossible – to create a treatment that will attack the hepatitis B virus while not damaging the rest of the healthy cell.

Another reason that finding a cure is so difficult is because of the body’s immune response. Typically, your body can recognize a virus as a potentially harmful invader, or something that is not supposed to be within your body. This triggers something called an “immune response”, which is when your body sends fighter cells to destroy the virus. With hepatitis B, the proper immune response often does not occur. Your body does not completely recognize the virus as a threat. Instead of eliminating the virus as it is supposed to, your body responds by creating an inflammatory reaction in the liver, which is called hepatitis. The incomplete attack on the virus allows it to replicate inside of healthy cells and kill them. Together, the cccDNA and the body’s incomplete immune response create a challenge for scientists and researchers.

    What will a hepatitis B cure look like?

As a patient advocate, I believe that the term “cure” should be reserved for when a person is no longer at risk for illness or death due to the infection. Having said that, I also realize the need for more practical definitions. You don’t know how effective a drug is until it’s been used for a long time, so it is important to use a definition that can encompass a wide range of possibilities.

A functional, practical cure would ideally be a drug that a person can take for a short amount of time. Once they have completed their prescribed dosage, they will stop taking the medication and still have the same benefits of the drug without having to take it. It would be great to eliminate the viral markers of the disease, such as the hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), along with the reversal of liver disease and the return of normal liver function. 

 

 What is the Hepatitis B Foundation’s contribution to the cure?

 

When we started the Hepatitis B Foundation in 1991, there was very little interest in hepatitis B. Our goal was to help people with chronic hepatitis B and the diseases with which it was associated, like liver cancer and cirrhosis. We wanted to help people by finding a cure and by linking them to care. The Hepatitis B Foundation aims to help find a cure in two ways: through our own research institute – the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute – or by providing assistance to other researchers who are working towards a cure. Through the ups and downs of governmental and pharmaceutical interest, the Hepatitis B Foundation has remained committed and focused on solely addressing hepatitis B.

We created the Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center, which became a home for other hepatitis B companies, and we kept the interest strong. The Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center has now grown into a place for hepatitis B education and collaboration for professionals and students alike. We host regular seminars that provide updates on current research in the field and provide a welcoming environment for other hepatitis B experts to share their knowledge through presentations, guest lectures, and interactive discussions.

Nowadays, we have entered a clinical renaissance; people have a renewed interest in hepatitis B. Our job is to keep the attention focused on the infection and the people who are affected by it. We remain committed, resolved and steady. The Hepatitis B Foundation is the organization that is there for the patients.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is based upon recent research and updates in the field. Please note that timelines and specific information regarding hepatitis B drugs are estimations and are subject to change as new research emerges.

Holidays with Hepatitis B: How to Tell Your Family

Image courtesy of Unsplash

As the holidays approach, families are planning parties and dinners and preparing to spend time with their loved ones. In such a merry atmosphere, the idea of discussing hepatitis B – whether its a recent diagnosis or the first time that you are ready to disclose your status – may be intimidating. However, it doesn’t have to be! In honor of  National Family Health History Day – which falls on Thanksgiving – we put together some tips to help you start the conversation.

 

  • Start Small – Facing your entire family at once can be frightening in any situation. Consider pulling one or two family members that you trust aside and speak with them first. They might offer advice on how to tell the rest of the family.
  • Come PreparedAlthough chronic hepatitis B is the world’s most common risk factor for liver cancer, there is a universal lack of education and awareness about the infection. Use our fact sheets to help your loved ones understand what hepatitis B is, how it impacts your liver, and what it means to live with it.  For more fact sheets and to view them in different languages, click here. Be sure to let your family know that hepatitis B is spread by direct blood contact, not through casual interactions. They cannot be infected by sharing the same utensils as you, eating food prepared by you, or casual touches such as hugging.
  • Be EncouragingMost people who are diagnosed with hepatitis B live long, healthy lives! Let your family know that you are monitoring the infection and taking the necessary precautions to prevent liver damage. Your family will be happy to know that you are in control of your health!
  • Let them know how to helpAlthough you may be able to
    Image courtesy of Canva

    manage hepatitis B by yourself, creating a support network is always a good idea! Do you have any active family members?  Exercise is great for the liver, so ask them to come along next time you go for a bike ride or hit the gym! Maybe you know someone who is great at cooking. Try cooking some healthy meals together!

  • Give them timeHearing about a medical diagnosis can be difficult for everyone involved and may also be a sensitive topic for some. Don’t let this discourage you! Try showing them a few of our #justB campaign videos, which feature real people who have been impacted by hepatitis B. Some stories, like Alan’s, discuss how people often do not realize that hepatitis B and liver cancer are related. Other stories, like Alice’s, showcase the importance of being honest with your loved ones and explain how to turn a diagnosis into an educational opportunity. Viewing  #justB stories might help your family members feel more comfortable talking about the infection and encourage them to learn their own hepatitis B status.

National Family Health History Day

Image courtesy of Canva

In 2004, the Surgeon General declared Thanksgiving Day to be National Family Health History Day. It’s meant as a time for families to discuss health issues that appear to run in the family. While hepatitis B cannot be passed from generation to generation like genetic diseases, it is commonly spread within families due to how the virus is transmitted. The most common mode of transmission is from mother-to-child during childbirth, often because the mother was unaware that she was infected and that certain precautions needed to be taken to prevent transmission to the baby. As hepatitis B rarely has any symptoms, many people do not discover that they are infected until a family member is diagnosed or they develop liver damage.  Approaching the topic and starting the conversation can help to break this cycle of transmission within families.

The good news is that hepatitis B is preventable and, if detected early, liver damage can be prevented! Offer to help your loved ones make an appointment with their doctor or to accompany them when they go to get tested or vaccinated; they’ll appreciate the extra support!  

Also, consider making some time this Thanksgiving to fill out My Family Health Portrait – a free tool that maps out your family’s history of health conditions and identifies what you may be at risk for.

The topic of health is important all year round; you don’t have to wait for the holiday season to bring it up! Start the conversation today and help your family find the information they need to protect themselves and stay healthy!

 

Know the Risk: Transmission Through Tattoos & Piercings

Tattoos and piercings are a popular mode of self-expression. Oftentimes, they hold cultural and societal significance. Rarely are they thought about in relation to public health. In the United States, there are no federal regulations for tattoos or piercings apart from age restrictions. This means that tattoo and piercing parlors may have different sanitation and sterilization standards in accordance with how strictly a state chooses to manage the industry. For example, Nevada does not regulate tattoo or piercing shops, but New Jersey requires each shop to meet certain equipment sterilization and sanitation standards. Many people also decide to forgo a professional setting and receive body art from their friends, which can be especially dangerous. This lack of universal regulations and sanitation laws increases the risk of spreading bloodborne infections like hepatitis B.  

Image Courtesy of Unsplash

How Tattoos and Piercings Work: A tattoo is created by sharp needles repeatedly piercing the skin to embed ink into your body. While this ensures a permanent image, it also exposes your blood directly to the needle and anything that might remain on the needle from its previous usage. As hepatitis B is spread by direct blood contact, getting a tattoo poses a risk of infection if the equipment is not single use has not been properly sanitized, preferably using an autoclave. A fresh tattoo is an open wound, so it is important to properly bandage the area and keep it away from shared items that could potentially have blood on it, such as razors.

When you get a body part pierced, an artist typically uses a piercing gun with a very sharp needle that pokes a hole into the desired area and earrings or body jewelry are placed into the hole to make sure that the body tissue does not close. Earrings or body jewelry pose another possible risk of direct blood contact if they have been previously worn by another individual, so it is always best to use a new pair of earrings when getting pierced. In general, it is best to avoid sharing earrings and body jewelry. It is important to remember that hepatitis B often has no symptoms, so most people who are infected do not know that they have it. Safety precautions should be taken for everyone receiving a tattoo or piercing to prevent accidental transmission of the infection.

Do Your Research: Making a permanent decision can be difficult and the risk of contracting an infection can complicate matters; it is not something that you want to rush into it. Completing background research can narrow down your choices and help you feel more confident in your ultimate decision. Look at reviews of the shops and see what customers have said. If you see a review about a rash or an infection, it could be a sign that the establishment is not meeting basic safety standards. If you are in America, you can also check the state laws for body art and ask to see a parlor’s compliance certificates if they are not displayed. Don’t be afraid to ask questions! Ask to see the autoclave and ensure equipment bags are opened in front of you.

Image Courtesy of Unsplash

Although it may be tempting to have a friend or family member complete your body art in the comfort of a familiar setting, it also poses a higher risk for exposure to infections like hepatitis B. It is likely that such a setting does not have the proper tools, sterilization equipment, or training to clean the needles as they should be cleaned. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series is strongly recommended for everyone, but especially to those who participate in activities with higher chances of blood exposure, such as getting body art in unregulated areas. After completing the vaccine series, most people are protected from hepatitis B for life, but other infections – like hepatitis C or HIV – still pose a risk.

If you need help identifying safe establishments, the Association for Professional Piercers is an international non-profit organization that allows you to search for shops in your area that meet certain health standards and answers any questions you may have about piercing. The Alliance for Professional Tattooists, Inc. is another international non-profit that can also help you find safe shops. Both have been approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). For more information from the CDC about hepatitis B or other bloodborne infections, click here.

What to look for in a Tattoo or Piercing Parlor:

  • Gloves – The artist should be wearing disposable gloves to keep the risk of contamination and blood exposure as low as possible. In addition, they should change their gloves each time they leave their work area or switch to a new client.
  • Disinfectant – Does the artist wipe down their work area when they are done with a client? Make sure that any area that they have set a tool on has been properly cleaned as well. The hepatitis B virus can survive on a surface for up to a week, so it is extremely important that any surface a tool comes into contact with has been sanitized.
  • Clean Equipment – Many tattoos and piercing shops have reusable needles and piercing guns. These objects are sharp and draw the clients’ blood, so they should always be thoroughly cleaned before being used again. If you notice that an artist works on one client and does not disinfect or change their tool before accepting a new client, there is an extremely high risk for blood exchange. Be sure to ask about the autoclave.
  • Certifications – Oftentimes, shops will have their certifications displayed on the wall. This shows that they have either been properly trained or are required to meet certain standards by law. Depending on the certification, this could mean that the shop is well-educated in preventing and knows how to properly sterilize their tools.

If you think you have been exposed to hepatitis B, it is important to get tested. Visit your doctor or local health clinic to get screened. To a find a place near you where you can get tested in the U.S., visit www.hepbunited.org.

If you have been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B, our Physicians Directory*  can help you locate a liver specialist near you. The World Hepatitis Alliance can also help you find health care services and hepatitis B education in your country.

*Disclaimer

The Hepatitis B Foundation Liver Specialist Directory is intended for use by the public to assist in locating a liver specialist within a specific state or country. All data is self-reported and is not intended for use by organizations requiring credentialing verification. The HBF does not warrant the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, or appropriateness for a particular purpose of the information contained in the Liver Specialist Directory. The HBF does not endorse the individuals listed in the service, nor does HBF verify medical qualifications, licenses, practice areas or suitability of those listed. In no event shall the HBF be liable to you or anyone else for any decision made or action taken by you based upon the information provided in the service.

Note: This is not a physician referral service. The HBF cannot provide referrals to specific physicians nor advice on individual medical problems.

Vlog: Lunch & Learn Session with Jefferson APAMSA

Join Michaela Jackson for A Day in the Life of a Public Health Coordinator as she takes you behind the scenes of Hep B United Philadelphia.

In this episode, the Hepatitis B Foundation joins Hep B United Philadelphia in the City for a Lunch & Learn session with Jefferson University APAMSA students.

Nearly 1 in 4 Romanians with Hepatitis B also Infected with Hepatitis D

 

Since the 1990’s most of Eastern Europe has seen a decline in the prevalence of hepatitis D, a dangerous coinfection of hepatitis B, attributed to successful vaccination programs and government prioritization. Romania, which has the highest hepatitis B prevalence in the EU, has not seen such declines of hepatitis D, which affects 23% of its hepatitis B patients. Hepatitis D coinfection is considered hyperendemic to the country, and has some of the highest rates of coinfection globally1. Seventy percent of these 200,000 patients will progress to cirrhosis, often within only 10  years2, and face barriers to receiving effective treatment and management. Although the country enacted a national hepatitis B vaccination program for all newborns in 1995 and a catch-up program for school-age children in 1999, older populations already infected with hepatitis B and inadequately immunized young people represent susceptible groups for coinfection with hepatitis B and disease.1,3. Additionally; lack of hepatitis B vaccination recommendations for high risk groups, low implementation of hepatitis B screening during pregnancy, supply shortages and vaccine hesitancy, have created opportunities for hepatitis B and D transmission. Exposure to infected blood or sexual fluids through blood transfusions or surgeries (before the 1990’s), tattoos, piercings, injection drug use, or sexual contact with an infected person, can expose people already living with hepatitis B to hepatitis D, or expose those who have not received the full hepatitis B vaccine series to both viruses. Control of hepatitis B and D coinfection has also been hindered by the lack of a national registry and surveillance system thus preventing an understanding of the accurate prevalence and public health burden1.

With health expenditure and life expectancy the lowest in the EU, Romania is battling large system-wide failures that have fostered the persistence of hepatitis B and D in its population5.

Dr. Florin Caruntu, of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Bucharest, has suggested that there is a general low level of awareness and screening among health care providers in Romania, which has led to late diagnoses and cost many patient lives. For patients who are diagnosed, investigational testing is not covered by the national insurance house, placing a financial burden on patients to pay out of pocket for the additional testing necessary to manage their coinfection. With pegylated interferon injections as the only semi-effective treatment option, even diagnosed patients struggle to effectively control their coinfection and even less are connected to clinical trials. Although there are 7 new drugs in clinical trials, progress has lagged behind patient need for new therapies, many of whom are living with cirrhosis.

Increased government investment in the healthcare system, including medical training and education programs for provider awareness, updated protocols and coverage of investigational testing, would pave the way for increased patient identification and navigation to successful care. As clinical trials continue to progress, it is critical that Romania be a top consideration for clinical trial sites, as patients anxiously await more effective treatment options.

For more information on HDV in Romania, please watch our webinar featuring expert speaker, Dr. Florin Caruntu, of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Bucharest, Romania.

For more information about hepatitis B/D coinfection and the Hepatitis Delta Connect program, please visit www.hepdconnect.org or email us at connect@hepdconnect.org. If you are a hepatitis delta patient, and wish to receive information about upcoming clinical trials, please enter your information here. Hepatitis Delta Connect seeks to provide information, resources and support for hepatitis B/D patients and their families through its website, social media, fact sheets, webinars  and hepatitis D liver specialist directory.

1. Hepatitis delta virus infection in Romania: Prevalence and risk factors. (2015). Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, 24(4) doi:10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.244.dtv

2. Noureddin, M., & Gish, R. (2014). Hepatitis delta: Epidemiology, diagnosis and management 36 Years after discovery. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 16(1), 1-8. doi:10.1007/s11894-013-0365-x

3. Ruta, S. M., Matusa, R. F., Sultana, C., Manolescu, L., Kozinetz, C. A., Kline, M. W., & Cernescu, C. (2005). High prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in Romanian adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 7(1), 68-68. doi:10.1186/1758-2652-7-1-68

4. Gheorghe, L., Csiki, I. E., Iacob, S., & Gheorghe, C. (2013). The prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection in an adult population in Romania: A nationwide survey. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 25(1), 56.

5. OECD/European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies (2017), Romania: Country Health Profile 2017, State of Health in the EU,OECD Publishing, Paris/European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Brussels. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264283534-en

 

The Link Between Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

October is Liver Cancer Awareness Month!  Despite the aggressive nature of this cancer – only one out of every five diagnosed patients survive beyond five years – liver cancer receives little attention from those outside of the health field. To help raise awareness and support those who have been affected, we are using our #justB campaign to share the stories of individuals who have been directly impacted by liver cancer throughout the month of October. The stories are featured throughout the month on the Hepatitis B Foundation, Liver Cancer Connect and Hep B United social media outlets. Check out Alice, Bunmi, Dai, and Kim’s stories.

What is Liver Cancer?

Liver cancer occurs when normal liver cells begin to grow uncontrollably and form a mass called a tumor. Cancerous tumors are dangerous because they begin to damage healthy cells that make up the organ and impair the liver’s functionality. Of the nine different types of liver cancer, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common and often results from chronic hepatitis B. In the United States, new cases of liver cancer and liver cancer deaths are steadily rising. In fact, a recent study has shown that there has been a 53% increase in liver cancer deaths since 2000.

 

 

Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

Although liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, it is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. Many people do not realize that chronic hepatitis B is the primary global risk factor for developing liver cancer. Certain viruses, including hepatitis B, can cause hepatitis, which translates to “inflammation of liver.” The virus attacks the liver and weakens its ability to perform important tasks like filtering toxins from your blood and maintaining the level of sugar in your blood. Chronic (long-term) infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses can lead to liver cancer. Worldwide, hepatitis B is much more widespread than hepatitis C, making it a priority when it comes to the prevention of liver cancer. Approximately 292 million people around the world are living with hepatitis B.

Liver Cancer by the Numbers:

  • 10% of the world’s liver transplants are due to hepatitis B
  • 60% of liver cancer diagnoses are due to cases of chronic hepatitis B
  • 43% of liver cancer deaths are due to chronic hepatitis B
  • 788,000 people die from liver cancer annually
  • 15% – 25% of people who were infected with hepatitis B at birth will die prematurely from cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma, if their hepatitis B is not diagnosed and appropriately managed
  • 80% of liver cancer patients are in sub-Saharan Africa & in Eastern Asia

Preventing Liver Cancer

Educating oneself is the first step in preventing liver cancer! If you have hepatitis B, be aware of the risk factors and behaviors that can increase your likelihood of liver damage and liver cancer, such as consuming alcohol and high amounts of junk food. Groups such as the CDC Division of Viral Hepatitis, the American Cancer Foundation, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, and the Cancer Support Community all provide free fact sheets, call lines, and literature by experts that can help you understand what may be occurring in your body and to make educated choices. You can also check out our Liver Cancer Connect resource for more information or for liver cancer support.

Did you know that the hepatitis B vaccine is the first anti-cancer vaccine ever created? That’s because it helps to prevent liver cancer! Remember that the vaccine is typically given in a set of 3 doses. It is extremely important to take all three in order to receive lifelong protection from hepatitis B-related liver cancer: with the first dose you 50% protected, with the second dose you are 80% protected, and with the third dose, you are 100% immune to hepatitis B. In the U.S., there is also a 2-dose vaccine available, so you can be fully protected with fewer doses! If you are worried about the cost of the birth dose for your infant or the vaccine for yourself, many countries have free health clinics that can administer it or link you to an organization that can help.

Another key to preventing liver cancer is to get screened for hepatitis B. If you have not received your vaccine and you think you fall into a high risk group, talk to your doctor about getting tested. Because hepatitis B often has no symptoms, it is important to get screened even if you do not feel ill. An early diagnosis means that you can begin treatment, if needed, sooner and prevent irreversible damage from occurring. Like the vaccines, your local doctor or health clinic may be able to test you for free or reduced cost – just ask! Some local community groups also provide free hepatitis B testing, so be sure to look out for flyers and announcements about them in your community as well!

Interested in learning more about the connection between hepatitis B and liver cancer? Join us on Tuesday, October 23rd from 2:00 pm – 3:00 pm ET for Hepatitis B is the Major Etiology of Liver Cancer: Is a Cure Possible? Is it Necessary? – a webinar by HBF’s co-founder Dr. Tim Block on hepatitis B, liver cancer, and where to go from the current research standpoint. Register for the webinar here.

Join us for a Twitter Chat for Liver Cancer Awareness Month!

October is Liver Cancer Awareness Month. Often we neglect to think about the link between hepatitis and liver cancer. Tuesday, Oct. 16, representatives from Hepatitis B Foundation, CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, and NASTAD will co-host a twitter chat at 3 p.m. EST to discuss this important link.

Featured guests include Prevent Cancer Foundation, Hep B United Philadelphia (HBUP) and Iowa Harm Reduction Coalition. Prevent Cancer Foundation is a national nonprofit dedicated to cancer prevention and early detection. HBUP is a Hep B United partner committed to testing and vaccination to fight hepatitis B and liver cancer in Philadelphia. Iowa Harm Reduction Coalition is a non-profit organization providing non-judgmental and compassionate services that empower people to care for themselves and one another.

Below are the questions to be discussed during the chat. How can you contribute?  Join the conversation that day and throughout the month with the hashtag #Liverchat. Share any resources or strategies you have that raise awareness about the link between liver cancer and hepatitis.

  • Q1:What are things everyone should know about liver cancer, and also the link between hepatitis and liver cancer?
  • Q2: What can people do to prevent hepatitis, or for those living with hepatitis, what can be done to protect the liver and prevent liver cancer?
  • Q3: What are the barriers that keep people from getting screened for hepatitis and liver cancer and how can they be addressed?
  • Q4: Why are some populations more vulnerable to hepatitis and liver cancer, and how do we address the disparities?
  • Q5: What resources are available to educate others about hepatitis B & C and liver cancer? What resources are needed?
  • Q6: Who are your key partners in addressing liver cancer? Who would you like to engage more in your work? (Tag them here!)
  • Q7: What is one lesson learned or piece of advice for others who want to expand their work on the link between viral hepatitis and liver cancer?

Co-hosts and featured partners of the chat include:

  • Hepatitis B Foundation – @hepbfoundation
  • NASTAD – @NASTAD
  • CDC Division of Viral Hepatitis – @cdchep
  • Prevent Cancer Foundation – @preventcancer
  • Hep B United Philadelphia – @hepbunitedphila
  • Iowa Harm Reduction Coalition – @IAHarmReduction
  • CDCNPIN will be moderating the chat – @cdcnpin

Confirmed participants and their handles include:

  • Hep B United  – @hepbunited
  • Coalition Against Hepatitis For People of African Origin – @CHIPO_HBV
  • Liver Cancer Connect – @livercancerconn
  • CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control – @CDC_Cancer
  • Hep Free Hawaii – @HepFreeHawaii
  • HBI-DC – @HBIDC
  • HepFreeNYC – @hepfreenyc
  • NAIRHHA Day – @NAIRHHADAY
  • Minnesota Department of Health – @mnhealth
  • Philly Hep C Coalition – @hep_CAP

Just getting started with Twitter? Do you wish to join the conversation but you don’t know how?  Type #Liverchat in the search box of the Twitter application to follow the chat, and click on “Latest”.

 

You can prepare your tweets in response to the topics listed above in advance, or you can also tweet on the fly, re-tweet, or Like a tweet during the chat.

The questions are labeled Q1, Q2, etc. so please respond/answer specific question by using A1, A2, etc. in front of your tweets. Remember to include the #Liverchat hashtag, which is not case sensitive, in all of your tweets.

If you plan to participate, please contact us at info@hepb.org and we’ll add you to the list of confirmed participants. Let us know if you have any other questions about joining the chat. We’re here to help!