Hep B Blog

What’s the Difference: Hepatitis A vs Hepatitis B

With five different types of viral hepatitis, it can be difficult to understand the differences between them. Some forms of hepatitis get more attention than others, but it is still important to know how they are transmitted, what they do, and the steps that you can take to protect yourself and your liver!

This is part two in a three-part series.

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver”. A liver can become inflamed for many reasons, such as too much alcohol, physical injury, autoimmune response, or a reaction to bacteria or a virus. The five most common hepatitis viruses are A, B, C, D, and E. Some hepatitis viruses can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure, or even liver cancer. Damage to the liver reduces its ability to function and makes it harder for your body to filter out toxins.

Hepatitis A vs. Hepatitis B

While hepatitis A and B both impact the liver, the two viruses differ greatly from one another. Hepatitis B is a blood-borne pathogen; its primary mode of transmission is through direct blood-to-blood contact with an infected person. In contrast, hepatitis A can be spread by fecal-oral transmission or by consuming food or water that has been contaminated. It is important to note that a person cannot contract hepatitis B through casual interactions such as holding hands, sharing a meal with, or eating foods prepared by someone who is infected. There is no need to keep plates and utensils separate. However, hepatitis A can be spread through food that is prepared by an infected person. Hepatitis A is primarily caused by poor sanitation and personal hygiene. Poor sanitation and hygiene can be the result of a lack of essential infrastructure like waste management or clean water systems. It can also result from a lack of education.

Hepatitis A is an acute infection; the virus typically stays in the body for a short amount of time and most people make a full recovery after several weeks. Recently, the United States has seen a rise in hepatitis A infections. The rise is partially attributed to a growing homeless population and increases in injection drug use. You can track hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States by using this map.

Unlike hepatitis B, which rarely has symptoms, people infected with hepatitis A generally develop symptoms four weeks after exposure. However, children under the age of 6 often do not show any symptoms. Oftentimes, an infected adult will experience nausea, vomiting, fever, dark urine, or abdominal pain. Older children and adults with hepatitis A will typically experience jaundice, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Once a person makes a recovery, they cannot be reinfected. Their body develops protective antibodies that will recognize the virus and fight it off if it enters their system again. Hepatitis A rarely causes lasting liver damage, but in a small percentage of individuals, it can cause acute liver failure called fulminant hepatitis. Some people with hepatitis A feel ill enough that they need to be hospitalized to receive fluids and supportive care.

On the other hand, hepatitis B begins as a short-term infection, but in some cases, it can progress into a chronic, or life-long, infection. Chronic hepatitis B is the world’s leading cause of liver cancer and can lead to serious liver diseases such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Most adults who become infected with hepatitis B develop an acute infection and will make a full recovery in approximately six months. However, about 90% of infected newborns and up to 50% of young children will develop a life-long infection. This is because hepatitis B can be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby due to exposure to her blood. Many infected mothers do not know they are infected and therefore cannot work with their physicians to take the necessary precautions to prevent transmission. It is extremely important for all pregnant women to get tested for the hepatitis B – if they are infected, transmission to their baby can be prevented!

There are vaccines to protect people against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B. If you are unvaccinated and believe that you have been exposed to hepatitis A, you should contact your doctor or local health department to get tested. If you were exposed by consuming contaminated food, the health department can work with you to identify the source of exposure and prevent a potential outbreak. Depending on the situation and when you were exposed, your doctor may administer postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) to help prevent the infection or lessen its impact. For hepatitis A, PEP is given in the form of one dose of the vaccine or immune goblin.

For unvaccinated individuals, PEP is also recommended after a possible exposure to hepatitis B and is usually given as a dose of the vaccine. In certain cases, a physician will recommend that a patient receive both the vaccine and a dose of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) for additional protection. As recommended by the CDC, all infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers (HBsAg positive) should receive both a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and a dose of HBIG within 12 hours of birth in order to prevent transmission. As timing is crucial in the prevention of disease, a healthcare provider should be notified as quickly as possible after a potential exposure.

Prevention

Hepatitis A and B vaccines can protect you for life! The hepatitis A vaccine is given in 2-doses over the span of six months and the hepatitis B vaccine is given in 3-doses over the course of six months; there is even a 2-dose hepatitis B vaccine now available in the U.S.! You can also ask your doctor about getting the combination vaccine for hepatitis A and B together, which will reduce the number of shots you need.

The CDC recommends that people living with chronic hepatitis B also get vaccinated for hepatitis A to protect themselves against another liver infection and potential liver damage. While the hepatitis A vaccine is routinely given to children in the United States, other countries have different vaccine recommendations, so check with your doctor to see if you have been vaccinated. Hepatitis A can also be prevented by good hygiene practices like washing your hands with soap and hot water after using the bathroom or before preparing food, but the best form of prevention is always vaccination!

What’s the Difference: Hepatitis B vs Hepatitis C?

With five different types of viral hepatitis, it can be difficult to understand the differences between them. Some forms of hepatitis get more attention than others, but it is still important to know how they are transmitted, what they do, and the steps that you can take to protect yourself and your liver!

This is part one in a three-part series.

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver”. A liver can become inflamed for many reasons, such as too much alcohol, physical injury, autoimmune response, or a reaction to bacteria or a virus. The five most common hepatitis viruses are A, B, C, D, and E. Some hepatitis viruses can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure, or even liver cancer. Damage to the liver reduces its ability to function and makes it harder for your body to filter out toxins.

Both hepatitis B and C are blood-borne pathogens, which means that their primary mode of transmission is through direct blood-to-blood contact with an infected person. Also, both hepatitis B and C can cause chronic, lifelong infections that can lead to serious liver disease. Hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother-to-child during birth while hepatitis C is more commonly spread through the use of unclean needles used to inject drugs.

 

Hepatitis B vs. Hepatitis C

Despite having an effective vaccine, hepatitis B is the world’s most common liver infection; over 292 million people around the world are estimated to be living with chronic hepatitis B. While hepatitis C tends to get more attention and research funding, hepatitis B is considerably more common and causes more liver-related cancer and death worldwide than hepatitis C. Combined, chronic hepatitis B and C account for approximately 80% of the world’s liver cancer cases. However, studies show that those with chronic hepatitis B are more likely to die from liver-related complications than those who are infected with hepatitis C. With hepatitis C, most people develop cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver, before liver cancer. In certain cases of hepatitis B, liver cancer can develop without any signs of cirrhosis, which makes it extremely difficult to predict the virus’ impacts on the body, and makes screening for liver cancer more complicated.

The hepatitis B virus is also approximately 5-10 times more infectious than hepatitis C, and far more stable. It can survive – and remain highly contagious – on surfaces outside of the body for up to 7 days if it is not properly cleaned with a disinfectant or a simple bleach solution. A new study suggests that the hepatitis B virus has the ability to survive in extreme temperatures, whereas the hepatitis C virus has been known to survive outside of the body for a short period of time on room-temperature surfaces. However, more research will need to be done on the topic.

Another major difference between the two forms of hepatitis is how the virus attacks a cell. The hepatitis C virus operates like other viruses; it enters a healthy cell and produces copies of itself that

Hepatitis C Virus
Courtesy of Google Images

go on to infect other healthy cells. The hepatitis B virus reproduces in a similar fashion, but with one large difference – covalently closed circular DNA. Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is a structure that is unique to only a few viruses. Unlike a typical virus, hepatitis B’s cccDNA permanently integrates itself into a healthy cell’s DNA – a component of the cell that allows it to function properly and produce more healthy cells. The cccDNA resides within an essential area of the cell called the nucleus and can remain there even if an infected person’s hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels are undetectable. Its presence means that a person with chronic hepatitis B may have a risk of reactivation even if the HBsAg levels have been undetectable for a long period of time. The complex nature and integration process of cccDNA contributes to the difficulties of finding a cure for hepatitis B. The cccDNA’s location inside of the nucleus is especially troublesome because it makes it difficult to isolate and destroy the cccDNA without harming the rest of the cell.

Hepatitis C, on the other hand, has a cure! Approved by the FDA in 2013, the cure is in the form of an antiviral pill that is taken once a day over the course of 8-12 weeks. For hepatitis C, a cure is defined as a sustained virologic response (SVR), which means that the virus is not detected in a person’s blood 3 months after treatment has been completed. In the United States, an affordable, generic version of the hepatitis C cure is set to be released by Gilead Sciences, Inc. in January 2019.

People living with chronic hepatitis B are susceptible to hepatitis Delta. Only people with hepatitis B can contract hepatitis D as well. Hepatitis Delta is considered to be the most severe form of hepatitis because of its potential to quickly lead to more serious liver disease than hepatitis B alone. Of the 292 million people living with chronic hepatitis B, approximately 15-20 million are also living with hepatitis D. Unlike HIV and hepatitis C coinfections, there are currently no FDA approved treatments for hepatitis Delta. However, there are ongoing clinical trials that are researching potential treatments!

Hepatitis B/C Coinfection

It is possible to have both hepatitis B and C at the same time. The hepatitis C virus may appear more dominant and reduce hepatitis B to low or undetectable levels in the bloodstream. Prior to curative treatment for hepatitis C, it is important for people to get tested for hepatitis B using the three-part blood test (HBsAg, anti-HBc total and anti-HBs). People currently infected with hepatitis B (HBsAg positive) or those who have recovered from past infection (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive) should be carefully managed according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) treatment guidelines in order to avoid dangerous elevation of liver enzymes resulting in liver damage.

How to Protect Yourself   

The hepatitis B vaccine is the best way to protect yourself and your family against hepatitis B. Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, you can protect yourself from both liver infections by following simple precautions! Simple steps such as not sharing personal items such as razors or toothbrushes, thoroughly washing your hands, and disinfecting surfaces that have been in contact with blood, can keep your liver healthy!

 

New Year’s Resolutions: Taking Control of Your Hepatitis B Infection

If you are living with chronic hepatitis B, you may feel as though you are not in control of your health, but that’s not true! Small changes to your daily life can go a long way towards improving your liver health and may even prevent liver damage from occurring. Here are five New Year’s resolutions to help you start 2019 off right!

  • Kick Your Old Habits to the Curb: Still smoking? Time to leave that behind! Old habits can be hard to break, but staying healthy is important. Did you know that insurance plans in the United States must cover smoking cessation programs through preventive care under the Affordable Care Act? This means that copayments and coinsurance can’t be applied to these programs. Taking the first step is better for your liver and your wallet!
  • Cook More: Cooking can be a lot of work, but it can also be fun! Regularly eating fast-food and highly processed meals are bad for your liver and can leave you feeling lethargic, so try switching things up. Consider signing up for a cooking class with your friends or family to learn some new tricks in the kitchen. You don’t have to make every meal from scratch; start by making one or two fresh meals a week and increase them as you feel more confident. Don’t know where to start? Try one of these recipes – desserts included!  There is no standard diet for chronic hepatitis B patients, but the American Cancer Societys low fat, low cholesterol, and high fiber meal ideas are a good, general diet to follow.
  • Write it Down: It can be difficult to remember all of the things
    Courtesy of Unsplash

    that you have to do and important tasks – like scheduling yourdoctor appointments – can get lost in the shuffle. Make 2019 the year that you start to write things down. Physically writing items down increases your chances of remembering them, so skip the Notes application on your phone and grab a piece of paper!

  • Make Some Time For Yourself: Stress is bad for every part of your body – including the liver – so it is important to make some time for yourself. Set a few hours aside each week to do an activity that you enjoy. If you have the resources, you may want to consider planning a vacation or taking a small weekend trip. Even if you can’t get away, set a goal to spend more time outdoors. Green spaces, such as an urban park or a forest, have been known to lower stress levels and can help manage weight, which is an important part of maintaining liver health.
  • Get Active: Exercising more might be one of the most common New Year’s resolutions, but it is also one of the most important ones! If you’re tired of going to the gym or bored with your old routine, try your hand at an exercise you hadn’t considered before. Yoga, pilates, running, and kickboxing are just a few examples of fun workouts that you can add to your exercise catalog and can be done outside of a typical gym setting. If you’re looking for affordable exercise options, be sure to check out some of the free exercise videos you can find on YouTube. You can also try hiking at your local park or joining a local community center!

New Year’s resolutions can be difficult to keep, especially if you are trying to do them all at once. The important part is to begin! If you are having trouble meeting your goals, pick one to start with and add another goal once it becomes a part of your routine.

Fighting the Doom and Gloom: Screening Saves Lives!

blood tubes

By Anu Hosangadi

Liver Cancer Connect’s “Fighting the Doom and Gloom” series is highlighting some of the advances in prevention, screening, and treatment that are helping to increase survival among people with liver cancer. Previously, we talked about how prevention works. Now we’ll explain how screening and surveillance save lives.
Continue reading "Fighting the Doom and Gloom: Screening Saves Lives!"

Fighting the Doom and Gloom: It Takes a Team

universal-health-care-medical-team

By Anu Hosangadi

People generally think liver cancer is non-treatable and non-curable. But that perception needs to change. Diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer have improved so much in the past 20 years that it can be cured if caught early and managed by an experienced health care team. Liver Cancer Connects “Fighting the Doom and Gloom” series explains how the right treatment plan  and teamwork offer the best chances for a cure.  Continue reading "Fighting the Doom and Gloom: It Takes a Team"

My partner has been diagnosed with hepatitis B. Can transmission be prevented by vaccination?

Courtesy of Google Images

A hepatitis B diagnosis can be scary and confusing for both you and your loved ones, especially if you are unfamiliar with the virus. Hepatitis B is known to be sexually transmitted, and you may wonder how you can continue your relationship with someone who has been infected. The good news is that hepatitis B is vaccine preventable.This means that after you complete the vaccine series, you cannot contract hepatitis B through any modes of transmission; you are protected for life!

However, it is important to remember that the vaccine will only work if a person has not been previously infected. Therefore, it is necessary to take certain steps after your partner’s diagnosis to protect yourself from becoming infected.

The first step is to visit the doctor and get tested, even if you think that you do not have it. Since hepatitis B often has no symptoms for decades, testing is the only way to know your status. The doctor should perform the Hepatitis B Panel test – a simple blood draw that shows hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb or anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody total (HBcAb or anti-HBc). Looking at these three blood test results together will show if you have a current infection, have recovered from a past infection, or if you need to be protected through vaccination. Once you receive your results, this chart can help you understand what they mean.

Preventing Transmission through Vaccines:

If you test negative for HBsAg, HBsAb, and HBcAb, you are not protected from hepatitis B and are considered to have a high risk of contracting the virus from your partner or other means. To prevent transmission, you will need to begin your vaccination series as soon as possible.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a 3-shot series taken over the span of 6 months. The first shot can be given at any time. The second dose should be given at least one month after the first shot, and the third and final dose should be separated from dose 2 by at least two months and dose 1 by at least 4 months.  While there is a minimum amount of time required between doses, there is no maximum amount of time. If you miss your second or third shot, you do not have to start the series over again; you can pick up where you left off! If your partner is pregnant and was diagnosed with hepatitis B, extra precautions need to be taken to prevent transmission to the child. Two shots will need to be given to the child in the delivery room: the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG), if recommended and available in your country.  You can learn more about pregnancy and hepatitis B here.

After completing the series, a quick blood test called the “antibody titer” (anti-HBs titer) test can confirm that you have responded to the vaccine. This test, which should be given at least one month after you receive the third dose, will be greater than 10 mIU/mL if you are protected from hepatitis B. Like the vaccine, your doctor can administer the titer test.

Hepatitis B is spread through direct contact with blood. HBV  is also a sexually transmitted disease, so it is important to practice safe sex by using condoms throughout the duration of the vaccine series until the antibody titer test confirms that you are protected. While you wait for your body to create its defense, there are other steps that you can take to avoid transmission such as not sharing toothbrushes or sharp objects like razors.

The hepatitis B vaccine is the only way to fully protect yourself from the virus. Preventive measures such as using condoms can help prevent hepatitis B transmission, but without vaccination, there can still be some risk.

If you do not have a doctor or are worried about the cost of testing or vaccination, you can still get tested and vaccinated! In the United States, Federally Qualified Health Centers provide the hepatitis B vaccine at low- or no cost to individuals without insurance or with limited plans. You can search for a health center near you here. Internationally, you can search our Physicians Directory and the World Hepatitis Alliance member map to identify member organizations in your country that may have advice on doctors in your area. In addition, keep a lookout out for local health fairs and screenings; they may provide free vaccinations or testing for hepatitis B!

Talk with Dr. Block: An Expert’s Insight to A Hepatitis B Cure – Part 2

In the last Talk with Dr. Block blog post, hepatitis B expert Timothy Block, Ph.D., co-founder, and President of the Hepatitis B Foundation, sat down to discuss the status of a hepatitis B cure and how the foundation is contributing to the cure efforts. In this second installment, he provides an inside look into what a cure could possibly look like and a potential cure timeline!

This is the final post in a two-part series.

 We keep hearing that a combination of drugs will be necessary to cure HBV. What will these therapies look like?

 

A combination of drugs is likely not necessary for everyone. We already know that a small number of people who are treated with one drug can do fairly well.  However, most people will likely need a combination of drugs only because of precision medicine. Precision medicine allows a healthcare specialist or provider to develop treatments on an individual scale based upon an understanding of that person’s response to the disease. Some patients might respond better to specific drugs and specific doses due to differences such as age or underlying health conditions. We should take advantage of precision medicine and match specific drugs with the specific clinical state that someone is in. I do not believe that an immunomodulator, or medications that help to regulate the immune system, will be necessary for most people. It may, however, accelerate a cure and help us create a cure cocktail that will be effective in a large number of patients.

A functional cure for hepatitis B will likely be defined as the absence of the hepatitis B virus in the cells. This means that the person will have a sustained loss of surface antigen (HBsAg negative) and undetectable viral load (HBV DNA).  I look forward to a time where we have drugs that are both functionally and clinically curative. It is difficult to say if the cure will be in pill form, an injection, or an infusion. The hope is to eventually have a cure that will be taken orally for a short amount of time like the hepatitis C cure. More research needs to be done in order to truly determine what form the cure might take.

   How long do you anticipate someone will need to be treated?

A person would likely need to be treated for a few years. I base this time frame on the lifespan of an infected cell and how long I think it would take to safely replace the infected cells with healthy, uninfected cells. However, it is important to remember that people with chronic hepatitis B differ by the number of infected cells they have in their liver; some people may have most of their liver infected while others might have a smaller portion of their liver infected. The replication of the virus in the body and immune response also differ from person to person. Due to these factors, treatment will likely be administered by some form of response-guided therapy (RGT). This type of treatment means that a doctor will monitor the patient as they take the medication and adjust it as needed. Some patients will respond rapidly to the drugs and will be able to end treatment sooner than others.

 

When can we anticipate a combination of therapies resulting in a cure?

 

I’m very optimistic. At the moment, it looks like we might see the approval of one to two new drugs for hepatitis B or hepatitis Delta between the next 18 months and 2 years. The approval of these potential drugs is dependent upon the research conducted in clinical trials, but there are several drugs set to enter Phase 3 of their trials, which is promising! I expect that entry inhibitors – antiretroviral drugs that block a virus from infecting a healthy cell – will be among the first round of new drugs to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is difficult to say if they will be a cure, but they will likely be a big step in the right direction!

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is based upon recent research and updates in the field. Please note that timelines and specific information regarding hepatitis B drugs are estimations and are subject to change as new research emerges.

Ask An Expert: Managing Hepatitis Delta During Pregnancy

 

  What is the standard treatment for hepatitis delta and how long is it taken?

 

Although there are no standard guidelines for the treatment of hepatitis delta, pegylated interferon has been shown to be effective for some patients. It is usually administered via weekly injections for 1 year or more and is able to cure roughly 15-40% depending on the length of time that treatment is administered. Although many patients see declines in their hepatitis delta virus levels, most do not maintain long-term control following the conclusion of treatment.

Can pregnant hepatitis delta patients be treated with interferon?

 

Interferon has not been proven to be safe for administration during pregnancy and should not be administered. It may be harmful to the baby.

 

What is the best way to manage a hepatitis delta infection during pregnancy, if interferon cannot be used?

 

A liver specialist may continue to manage the hepatitis B infection during pregnancy through antiviral treatment. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) recommends antiviral treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy for women with high hepatitis B viral loads.

How can hepatitis B and delta transmission be prevented to the baby?

 

Because a hepatitis B infection is required for someone to become infected with hepatitis delta, transmission from mother to child can be prevented with the hepatitis B vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend the first dose within 12 hours of birth, along with and a dose of HBIG (hepatitis B immunoglobulin), followed by the additional 2 vaccine shots; one at 1 month and the final one at 6 months old. The vaccine, along with HBIG and hepatitis B antiviral treatment (if necessary) greatly reduce the risk of transmission to the baby. In resource-limited countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by the additional shots on the recommended schedule. Once the vaccination series is completed, the baby should be protected for life against hepatitis B and delta.

If hepatitis delta cannot be treated during pregnancy, do most women have progression of their liver disease during pregnancy?

 

 While some women may see progression of their liver disease, due to the relative short length of pregnancy, most women do not show clinical signs of advancing liver disease.

 

What treatment should follow delivery? 

 

 

Following delivery, the mother may resume interferon treatment as long as she is not breastfeeding. Interferon treatment while breastfeeding could be harmful to the baby. As for all patients, keeping up-to-date on the latest hepatitis delta clinical trials could provide access to new, experimental treatments that may be more effective. For a global list of clinical trials for hepatitis D, visit the clinicaltrials.gov web page.

It is very important for all pregnant women who are hepatitis B and delta positive to be managed by a liver specialist who is familiar with managing coinfected patients. For assistance in locating a specialist near you, please visit our Physician Directory page. For additional questions, please visit www.hepdconnect.org or email connect@hepdconnect.org.

Talk with Dr. Block: An Expert’s Insight into a Hepatitis B Cure- Part 1

 

 

This November, the Hepatitis B Foundation attended The Liver Meeting – an annual conference hosted by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD). Inspired by the enlightening presentations and conversations at the conference, hepatitis B expert Timothy Block, Ph.D, co-founder and President of the Hepatitis B Foundation, took a moment to talk to us about the complexities of the hepatitis B virus and the status of a hepatitis B cure!  

This is part one of a two-part series.

  Why is finding a cure for chronic hepatitis B so challenging?    

       

That’s the big question. A cure is only complicated until we  are able to figure it out. Once we understand it, it will be simple! Hepatitis B is curable, but finding a cure for it is complex for two reasons. The first is that it is not a simple matter of virology. The virus establishes itself in a stable nest inside of the liver – called the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) – and successfully invades the immune system. To do this, the virus enters a healthy cell and plants itself inside of the cell’s DNA – a component of the cell that allows it to function properly and produce more healthy cells. This makes it difficult – but not impossible – to create a treatment that will attack the hepatitis B virus while not damaging the rest of the healthy cell.

Another reason that finding a cure is so difficult is because of the body’s immune response. Typically, your body can recognize a virus as a potentially harmful invader, or something that is not supposed to be within your body. This triggers something called an “immune response”, which is when your body sends fighter cells to destroy the virus. With hepatitis B, the proper immune response often does not occur. Your body does not completely recognize the virus as a threat. Instead of eliminating the virus as it is supposed to, your body responds by creating an inflammatory reaction in the liver, which is called hepatitis. The incomplete attack on the virus allows it to replicate inside of healthy cells and kill them. Together, the cccDNA and the body’s incomplete immune response create a challenge for scientists and researchers.

    What will a hepatitis B cure look like?

As a patient advocate, I believe that the term “cure” should be reserved for when a person is no longer at risk for illness or death due to the infection. Having said that, I also realize the need for more practical definitions. You don’t know how effective a drug is until it’s been used for a long time, so it is important to use a definition that can encompass a wide range of possibilities.

A functional, practical cure would ideally be a drug that a person can take for a short amount of time. Once they have completed their prescribed dosage, they will stop taking the medication and still have the same benefits of the drug without having to take it. It would be great to eliminate the viral markers of the disease, such as the hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), along with the reversal of liver disease and the return of normal liver function. 

 

 What is the Hepatitis B Foundation’s contribution to the cure?

 

When we started the Hepatitis B Foundation in 1991, there was very little interest in hepatitis B. Our goal was to help people with chronic hepatitis B and the diseases with which it was associated, like liver cancer and cirrhosis. We wanted to help people by finding a cure and by linking them to care. The Hepatitis B Foundation aims to help find a cure in two ways: through our own research institute – the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute – or by providing assistance to other researchers who are working towards a cure. Through the ups and downs of governmental and pharmaceutical interest, the Hepatitis B Foundation has remained committed and focused on solely addressing hepatitis B.

We created the Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center, which became a home for other hepatitis B companies, and we kept the interest strong. The Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center has now grown into a place for hepatitis B education and collaboration for professionals and students alike. We host regular seminars that provide updates on current research in the field and provide a welcoming environment for other hepatitis B experts to share their knowledge through presentations, guest lectures, and interactive discussions.

Nowadays, we have entered a clinical renaissance; people have a renewed interest in hepatitis B. Our job is to keep the attention focused on the infection and the people who are affected by it. We remain committed, resolved and steady. The Hepatitis B Foundation is the organization that is there for the patients.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is based upon recent research and updates in the field. Please note that timelines and specific information regarding hepatitis B drugs are estimations and are subject to change as new research emerges.