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預防和疫苗接種 

我怎麼會感染 B 型肝炎?
B 型肝炎是由經由血液傳播病毒而引起的一種傳染病。下面列出的是 B 型肝炎最常見的傳染方式:

  • 直接接觸受感染的血液或體液 
  • 在懷孕或分娩期間由受感染的母親傳給新生嬰兒 
  • 與受感染的伴侶發生無保護的性行為 
  • 共用或重複使用針頭(例如:共用針頭施打毒品,或者在醫療、針灸、紋身或穿耳洞/人體穿孔時重複使用未經適當消毒的針頭) 
  • 街頭醫生、牙醫或理髮師可能使用的未經消毒的醫療設備或針頭


B 型肝炎是隨意傳播的嗎?
不是,B 型肝炎不會經由隨意的接觸傳染。您不會經由空氣、擁抱、觸摸、打噴嚏、咳嗽、馬桶座墊或門把而感染 B 型肝炎。您不會因為與某個感染者同食同飲或是食用由某個 B 型肝炎患者準備的食物而感染 B 型肝炎。


誰最有可能感染 B 型肝炎?
雖然每個人都有感染 B 型肝炎的一定風險,但有些人更容易受感染。您的工作、生活方式、或者僅僅是出生在有 B 型肝炎的家庭,都可以增加您受感染的風險。以下是一些最常見的「高風險」群體——但請記住,這並非完整清單:

  • 與 B 型肝炎患者結婚或與其在家庭中密切接觸之人。這包括成年人和兒童。
  • 在 B 型肝炎較為常見的國家出生,或者其父母在 B 型肝炎較為常見的國家(亞洲、非洲和南美洲部分地區、東歐以及中東)出生之人。 
  • 在 B 型肝炎較為常見的國家(亞洲、非洲和南美洲部分地區、東歐以及中東)居住或旅行之人。
  • 性生活活躍的成年人和青少年 
  • 男男性行為者 
  • 受感染母親所生的嬰兒 
  • 醫護人員和在工作中接觸到血液的其他人士。
  • 緊急救難人員 
  • 進行腎透析的患者
  • 團體家庭、機構或勒戒中心的居民和工作人員。
  • 1992 年以前的輸血接受者,或未經適當篩查血液的近期接受者。
  • 曾經和現在的注射吸毒者 
  • 紋身或人體穿孔者 
  • 去看街頭醫生、牙醫或使用理髮師的人


針對 B 型肝炎疫苗有哪些建議?
世界衛生組織(世衛組織)和美國疾病控制和預防中心 (CDC) 建議所有嬰兒和 18 歲以下的兒童接種 B 型肝炎疫苗。CDC 還建議高危群體中的成年人接種疫苗。

B 型肝炎疫苗是一種安全有效的疫苗,建議所有剛出生的嬰兒和 18 歲以下的兒童接種該疫苗。也建議患有糖尿病的成年人,以及因其工作、生活方式、生活環境或出生國而有高感染風險的人士接種 B 型肝炎疫苗。每個人都有一定感染風險,所有成年人都應該認真考慮接種 B 型肝炎疫苗,以終生防止患上這種可預防的慢性肝病。


B 型肝炎疫苗安全嗎?
安全,B 型肝炎疫苗十分安全有效。事實上,這算是第一劑「抗癌疫苗」,因為它能保護您遠離 B 型肝炎,而 B 型肝炎是全世界八成肝癌的主因。
隨著全世界已接種超過 10 億劑疫苗,醫學和科學研究已証明,B 型肝炎疫苗是迄今最安全的疫苗之一。


我會因為接種疫苗而感染 B 型肝炎嗎?
不會,您不會因為接種疫苗而感染 B 型肝炎。這種疫苗是在實驗室中以合成酵母產品製成的。最常見的副作用是手臂上注射部位的紅腫和疼痛。


接種B 型肝炎疫苗的時間表是什麼?
您的醫生診所和當地衛生部門或診所都會提供 B 型肝炎疫苗。儘管針對年齡 11 歲到 15 歲的青少年有一種加速型雙劑量系列,但通常需要三劑來完成 B 型肝炎疫苗系列,而且有一種新型 2 劑疫苗於 2017 年獲得美國食品和藥物管理局 (FDA) 批准用於成年人。重要的是要記住,受感染的母親所生的嬰兒必須在產房或出生後 12 小時以內立即接種第 1 劑 B 型肝炎疫苗。

  • 第 1 劑——在任何特定時間,但新生兒應該在產房接種這一劑
  • 第 2 劑——在第 1 劑後至少 1 個月(或 28 天)
  • 第 3 劑——在第 1 劑後 6 個月(或者在第 2 劑後至少 2 個月)

第 1 劑和第 3 劑必須相隔至少 16 週。如果您的疫苗接種時間表已經延誤,您無需重新開始,您可以從您已中斷之處繼續——即使劑量已經相隔數年。
為了確保您能抵抗 B 型肝炎,進行簡單驗血來檢查您的「B 型肝炎抗體滴度」 (HBsAb),就能確認疫苗接種是否成功。


我還能做些什麼來保護自己免於 B 型肝炎的感染?
因為 B 型肝炎經由受感染的血液及體液傳染,所以您可以做幾件簡單的事情,保護自己遠離感染的風險,直到完成疫苗接種:

  • 避免直接接觸血液或任何體液 
  • 與性伴侶使用避孕套 
  • 避免濫用非法藥物和處方藥,包括注射此類藥物 
  • 避免共用諸如剃鬚刀、牙刷、耳環和指甲鉗等尖銳物品 
  • 確保在醫、牙醫、針灸、紋身、穿耳孔和人體穿孔方面使用無菌針頭和設備 
  • 戴手套並使用重新調製的漂白劑和水溶液來清理血液溢出物 
  • 在接觸或清潔血液後,用肥皂和水徹底洗手 
  • 最重要的是,確保您接種 B 型肝炎疫苗!

Prevention and Vaccination

How can I get hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by a virus that is spread through blood. Listed below are the most common ways hepatitis B is passed to others:

  • Direct contact with infected blood or infected bodily fluids 
  • From an infected mother to her newborn baby during pregnancy or delivery 
  • Unprotected sex with an infected partner 
  • Shared or re-used needles (for example, sharing needles for illegal drugs or re-using needles that are not properly sterilized for medicine, acupuncture, tattoos, or ear/body piercing) 
  • Unsterilized medical equipment or needles that may be used by roadside doctors, dentists or barbers


Is hepatitis B transmitted casually?

No, hepatitis B is not spread through casual contact. You cannot get hepatitis B from the air, hugging, touching, sneezing, coughing, toilet seats or doorknobs. You cannot get hepatitis B from eating or drinking with someone who is infected or from eating food prepared by someone who has hepatitis B.


Who is most likely to become infected with hepatitis B?
Although everyone is at some risk for getting hepatitis B, there are some people who are more likely to get infected. Your job, lifestyle, or just being born into a family with hepatitis B can increase your chances of being infected. Here are some of the most common "high risk" groups -- but please remember that this is not a complete list:

  • People who are married to or live in close household contact with someone who has hepatitis B. This includes adults and children.
  • People who were born countries where hepatitis B is common, or whose parents were born in countries where hepatitis B is common (Asia, parts of Africa and South America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East). 
  • People who live in or travel to countries where hepatitis B is very common (Asia, parts of Africa and South America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East).
  • Sexually active adults and teenagers 
  • Men who have sex with men 
  • Infants born to infected mothers 
  • Healthcare workers and others who are exposed to blood in their jobs.
  • Emergency personnel 
  • Patients who are on kidney dialysis
  • Residents and staff of group homes, institutions, or correctional facilities.
  • Recipients of blood transfusions before 1992, or more recent recipients of improperly screened blood
  • Injection drug users, past and present 
  • People who get tattoos or body piercing 
  • People who use roadside doctors, dentists or barbers

 

What are the recommendations for the hepatitis B vaccine?
The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants and children up to age 18 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC also recommends that adults in high-risk groups be vaccinated.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that is recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults living with diabetes and those at high risk for infection due to their jobs, lifestyle, living situations, or country of birth. Since everyone is at some risk, all adults should seriously consider getting the hepatitis B vaccine for a lifetime protection against a preventable chronic liver disease.


Is the hepatitis B vaccine safe?
Yes, the hepatitis B vaccine is very safe and effective. In fact, it is the first “anti-cancer vaccine” because it can protect you from hepatitis B, which is the cause of 80% of all liver cancer in the world.

With more than one billion doses given throughout the world, medical and scientific studies have shown the hepatitis B vaccine to be one of the safest vaccines ever made.


Can I get hepatitis B from the vaccine?
No, you cannot get hepatitis B from the vaccine. The vaccine is made from a synthetic yeast product in a laboratory. The most common side effects are redness and soreness in the arm where the shot is given.


What is the hepatitis B vaccine schedule?
The hepatitis B vaccine is available at your doctor's office and local health department or clinic. Three doses are generally required to complete the hepatitis B vaccine series, although there is an accelerated two-dose series for adolescents age 11 through 15 years, and there is a new 2-dose vaccine that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults in 2017. It is important to remember that babies born to infected mothers must receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine in the delivery room or within the first 12 hours of life.

  • 1st Shot - At any given time, but newborns should receive this dose in the delivery room
  • 2nd Shot - At least one month (or 28 days) after the 1st shot
  • 3rd Shot - Six months after the 1st shot (or at least 2 months after the 2nd shot)

There must be at least 16 weeks between the 1st and 3rd shot. If your vaccine schedule has been delayed, you do not need to start the series over, you can continue from where you have left off – even if there have been years between doses.

To be certain that you are protected against hepatitis B, ask for a simple blood test to check your “hepatitis B antibody titers” (HBsAb) which will confirm whether the vaccination was successful.


What else can I do to protect myself from hepatitis B?
Since hepatitis B is spread through infected blood and infected body fluids, there are several simple things that you can do to protect yourself from possible infection until your vaccination is complete:

  • Avoid touching blood or any bodily fluids directly 
  • Use condoms with sexual partners 
  • Avoid illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse, including injection of such drugs 
  • Avoid sharing sharp objects such as razors, toothbrushes, earrings, and nail clippers 
  • Make sure that sterile needles and equipment are used for medicine, the dentist, acupuncture, tattoos, ear and body piercing 
  • Wear gloves and use a fresh solution of bleach and water to clean up blood spills 
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after touching or cleaning up blood 
  • Most importantly, make sure you receive the hepatitis B vaccine!