- 1992 年以前的输血接受者，或未经适当筛查血液的近期接受者
世界卫生组织 (WHO) 和美国疾病控制和预防中心 (CDC) 建议所有婴儿和 18 岁以下的儿童接种乙型肝炎疫苗。CDC 还建议高危群体中的成年人接种疫苗。
乙型肝炎疫苗是一种安全有效的疫苗，建议所有刚出生的婴儿和 18 岁以下的儿童接种该疫苗。也建议患有糖尿病的成年人，以及因其工作、生活方式、生活环境或出生国而有高感染风险的人群接种乙型肝炎疫苗。因为每个人都有一定的风险，所以所有成年人都应该认真考虑注射乙型肝炎疫苗，以终生防护患上可预防的慢性肝病。
随着全世界已注射超过 10 亿剂疫苗，医学和科学研究已表明，乙型肝炎疫苗是迄今制成的最安全的疫苗之一。
乙型肝炎疫苗可在您的医生的办公室和当地卫生部门或诊所提供。尽管针对年龄 11 岁到 15 岁的青少年有一种加速型双剂量系列，但通常需要三剂来完成乙型肝炎疫苗系列，而且有一种新型 2 剂疫苗于 2017 年获得美国食品和药物管理局 (FDA) 批准用于成年人。重要的是要记住，受感染的母亲所生的婴儿必须在产房或生命最初 12 小时内接受首剂乙型肝炎疫苗接种。
- 第 1 次注射——在任何特定时间，但新生儿应在产房接受这一剂
- 第 2 次注射——在首次注射后至少 1 个月（或 28 天）
- 第 3 次注射——在首次注射后 6 个月（或者在第 2 次注射后至少 2 个月）
第 1 次和第 3 次注射必须相隔至少 16 周。如果您的疫苗计划表已延迟，您无需重新开始此系列，您可以从您已中断之处继续——即使剂量已经相隔数年。
Prevention and Vaccination
How can I get hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by a virus that is spread through blood. Listed below are the most common ways hepatitis B is passed to others:
- Direct contact with infected blood or infected bodily fluids
- From an infected mother to her newborn baby during pregnancy or delivery
- Unprotected sex with an infected partner
- Shared or re-used needles (for example, sharing needles for illegal drugs or re-using needles that are not properly sterilized for medicine, acupuncture, tattoos, or ear/body piercing)
- Unsterilized medical equipment or needles that may be used by roadside doctors, dentists or barbers
Is hepatitis B transmitted casually?
No, hepatitis B is not spread through casual contact. You cannot get hepatitis B from the air, hugging, touching, sneezing, coughing, toilet seats or doorknobs. You cannot get hepatitis B from eating or drinking with someone who is infected or from eating food prepared by someone who has hepatitis B.
Who is most likely to become infected with hepatitis B?
Although everyone is at some risk for getting hepatitis B, there are some people who are more likely to get infected. Your job, lifestyle, or just being born into a family with hepatitis B can increase your chances of being infected. Here are some of the most common "high risk" groups -- but please remember that this is not a complete list:
- People who are married to or live in close household contact with someone who has hepatitis B. This includes adults and children.
- People who were born countries where hepatitis B is common, or whose parents were born in countries where hepatitis B is common (Asia, parts of Africa and South America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East).
- People who live in or travel to countries where hepatitis B is very common (Asia, parts of Africa and South America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East).
- Sexually active adults and teenagers
- Men who have sex with men
- Infants born to infected mothers
- Healthcare workers and others who are exposed to blood in their jobs.
- Emergency personnel
- Patients who are on kidney dialysis
- Residents and staff of group homes, institutions, or correctional facilities.
- Recipients of blood transfusions before 1992, or more recent recipients of improperly screened blood
- Injection drug users, past and present
- People who get tattoos or body piercing
- People who use roadside doctors, dentists or barbers
What are the recommendations for the hepatitis B vaccine?
The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants and children up to age 18 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC also recommends that adults in high-risk groups be vaccinated.
The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that is recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults living with diabetes and those at high risk for infection due to their jobs, lifestyle, living situations, or country of birth. Since everyone is at some risk, all adults should seriously consider getting the hepatitis B vaccine for a lifetime protection against a preventable chronic liver disease.
Is the hepatitis B vaccine safe?
Yes, the hepatitis B vaccine is very safe and effective. In fact, it is the first “anti-cancer vaccine” because it can protect you from hepatitis B, which is the cause of 80% of all liver cancer in the world.
With more than one billion doses given throughout the world, medical and scientific studies have shown the hepatitis B vaccine to be one of the safest vaccines ever made.
Can I get hepatitis B from the vaccine?
No, you cannot get hepatitis B from the vaccine. The vaccine is made from a synthetic yeast product in a laboratory. The most common side effects are redness and soreness in the arm where the shot is given.
What is the hepatitis B vaccine schedule?
The hepatitis B vaccine is available at your doctor's office and local health department or clinic. Three doses are generally required to complete the hepatitis B vaccine series, although there is an accelerated two-dose series for adolescents age 11 through 15 years, and there is a new 2-dose vaccine that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults in 2017. It is important to remember that babies born to infected mothers must receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine in the delivery room or within the first 12 hours of life.
- 1st Shot - At any given time, but newborns should receive this dose in the delivery room
- 2nd Shot - At least one month (or 28 days) after the 1st shot
- 3rd Shot - Six months after the 1st shot (or at least 2 months after the 2nd shot)
There must be at least 16 weeks between the 1st and 3rd shot. If your vaccine schedule has been delayed, you do not need to start the series over, you can continue from where you have left off – even if there have been years between doses.
To be certain that you are protected against hepatitis B, ask for a simple blood test to check your “hepatitis B antibody titers” (HBsAb) which will confirm whether the vaccination was successful.
What else can I do to protect myself from hepatitis B?
Since hepatitis B is spread through infected blood and infected body fluids, there are several simple things that you can do to protect yourself from possible infection until your vaccination is complete:
- Avoid touching blood or any bodily fluids directly
- Use condoms with sexual partners
- Avoid illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse, including injection of such drugs
- Avoid sharing sharp objects such as razors, toothbrushes, earrings, and nail clippers
- Make sure that sterile needles and equipment are used for medicine, the dentist, acupuncture, tattoos, ear and body piercing
- Wear gloves and use a fresh solution of bleach and water to clean up blood spills
- Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after touching or cleaning up blood
- Most importantly, make sure you receive the hepatitis B vaccine!