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预防和疫苗接种 

我如何患上乙型肝炎?
乙型肝炎是由一种通过血液传播的病毒引起的传染病。下面列出的是乙型肝炎传给他人最常见的方式:

  • 直接接触受感染血液或受感染体液 
  • 在怀孕或分娩期间由受感染的母亲传染给新生婴儿 
  • 与受感染的伴侣发生无保护性行为 
  • 共用或重复使用的针头(例如,服用非法药物时共用针头,或者在医药、针灸、纹身或穿耳孔/人体穿孔方面重复使用未经适当消毒的针头) 
  • 街头医生、牙医或理发师可能使用的未经消毒的医疗设备或针头


乙型肝炎是随意传播的吗?
不是,乙型肝炎不通过随意接触传播。您不能通过空气、拥抱、触摸、打喷嚏、咳嗽、马桶座圈或门把手感染乙型肝炎。您不能通过与某个感染者同食同饮、或者食用由某个乙型肝炎患者准备的食物而感染乙型肝炎。


谁最有可能感染乙型肝炎?
虽然每个人都有一定的乙型肝炎感染风险,但有些人更容易受感染。您的工作、生活方式、或者仅仅是出生在有乙型肝炎的家庭,都可以增加您受感染的可能性。以下是一些最常见的“高危”群体——但请记住,这并非完整清单:

  • 与乙型肝炎患者结婚或与其在家庭中密切接触之人。这包括成年人和儿童。
  • 在乙型肝炎较为常见的国家出生,或者其父母在乙型肝炎较为常见的国家(亚洲、非洲和南美洲部分地区、东欧以及中东)出生之人。 
  • 在乙型肝炎较为常见的国家(亚洲、非洲和南美洲部分地区、东欧以及中东)居住或旅行之人。
  • 性活跃的成年人和青少年 
  • 男男性行为者 
  • 受感染母亲所生的婴儿 
  • 卫生保健工作者和其他在工作中接触到血液之人。
  • 紧急救援人员 
  • 进行肾透析的患者
  • 团体家庭、机构或惩教设施的居民和工作人员。
  • 1992 年以前的输血接受者,或未经适当筛查血液的近期接受者
  • 曾经和现在的注射吸毒者 
  • 刺纹身或人体穿孔者 
  • 找街头医生、牙医或理发师看病或服务的人


针对乙型肝炎疫苗的建议是什么?
世界卫生组织 (WHO) 和美国疾病控制和预防中心 (CDC) 建议所有婴儿和 18 岁以下的儿童接种乙型肝炎疫苗。CDC 还建议高危群体中的成年人接种疫苗。

乙型肝炎疫苗是一种安全有效的疫苗,建议所有刚出生的婴儿和 18 岁以下的儿童接种该疫苗。也建议患有糖尿病的成年人,以及因其工作、生活方式、生活环境或出生国而有高感染风险的人群接种乙型肝炎疫苗。因为每个人都有一定的风险,所以所有成年人都应该认真考虑注射乙型肝炎疫苗,以终生防护患上可预防的慢性肝病。


乙型肝炎疫苗安全吗?
安全,乙型肝炎疫苗十分安全有效。事实上,它是第一种“抗癌疫苗”,因为它能保护您远离乙型肝炎,而乙型肝炎是全世界八成肝癌的病因。
随着全世界已注射超过 10 亿剂疫苗,医学和科学研究已表明,乙型肝炎疫苗是迄今制成的最安全的疫苗之一。


我会从疫苗中感染乙型肝炎吗?
不会,您不会从疫苗中感染乙型肝炎。这种疫苗是在实验室中以合成酵母产品制成的。最常见的副作用是手臂上注射部位红肿和疼痛。


乙型肝炎疫苗计划表是什么?
乙型肝炎疫苗可在您的医生的办公室和当地卫生部门或诊所提供。尽管针对年龄 11 岁到 15 岁的青少年有一种加速型双剂量系列,但通常需要三剂来完成乙型肝炎疫苗系列,而且有一种新型 2 剂疫苗于 2017 年获得美国食品和药物管理局 (FDA) 批准用于成年人。重要的是要记住,受感染的母亲所生的婴儿必须在产房或生命最初 12 小时内接受首剂乙型肝炎疫苗接种。

  • 第 1 次注射——在任何特定时间,但新生儿应在产房接受这一剂
  • 第 2 次注射——在首次注射后至少 1 个月(或 28 天)
  • 第 3 次注射——在首次注射后 6 个月(或者在第 2 次注射后至少 2 个月)

第 1 次和第 3 次注射必须相隔至少 16 周。如果您的疫苗计划表已延迟,您无需重新开始此系列,您可以从您已中断之处继续——即使剂量已经相隔数年。

为了确定您能抵抗乙型肝炎,要求进行简单验血来检查您的“乙型肝炎抗体滴度” (HBsAb),这会确定疫苗接种是否成功。


我还能做些什么来保护自己免受乙型肝炎感染?
因为乙型肝炎通过受感染的血液和受感染的体液传播,所以您可以做几件简单事情,保护自己远离感染可能性,直到您完成疫苗接种:

  • 避免直接接触血液或任何体液 
  • 与性伴侣使用避孕套 
  • 避免非法药物和处方药物滥用,包括注射此类药物 
  • 避免共用诸如剃须刀、牙刷、耳环和指甲钳等尖锐物品 
  • 确保在医药、牙医、针灸、纹身、穿耳孔和人体穿孔方面使用无菌针头和设备 
  • 戴手套并使用新鲜的漂白剂和水溶液来清理血液溢出物 
  • 在接触或清洁血液后,用肥皂和水彻底洗手 
  • 最重要的是,确保您接种乙型肝炎疫苗!

Prevention and Vaccination

How can I get hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by a virus that is spread through blood. Listed below are the most common ways hepatitis B is passed to others:

  • Direct contact with infected blood or infected bodily fluids 
  • From an infected mother to her newborn baby during pregnancy or delivery 
  • Unprotected sex with an infected partner 
  • Shared or re-used needles (for example, sharing needles for illegal drugs or re-using needles that are not properly sterilized for medicine, acupuncture, tattoos, or ear/body piercing) 
  • Unsterilized medical equipment or needles that may be used by roadside doctors, dentists or barbers

 

Is hepatitis B transmitted casually?
No, hepatitis B is not spread through casual contact. You cannot get hepatitis B from the air, hugging, touching, sneezing, coughing, toilet seats or doorknobs. You cannot get hepatitis B from eating or drinking with someone who is infected or from eating food prepared by someone who has hepatitis B.


Who is most likely to become infected with hepatitis B?
Although everyone is at some risk for getting hepatitis B, there are some people who are more likely to get infected. Your job, lifestyle, or just being born into a family with hepatitis B can increase your chances of being infected. Here are some of the most common "high risk" groups -- but please remember that this is not a complete list:

  • People who are married to or live in close household contact with someone who has hepatitis B. This includes adults and children.
  • People who were born countries where hepatitis B is common, or whose parents were born in countries where hepatitis B is common (Asia, parts of Africa and South America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East). 
  • People who live in or travel to countries where hepatitis B is very common (Asia, parts of Africa and South America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East).
  • Sexually active adults and teenagers 
  • Men who have sex with men 
  • Infants born to infected mothers 
  • Healthcare workers and others who are exposed to blood in their jobs.
  • Emergency personnel
  • Patients who are on kidney dialysis
  • Residents and staff of group homes, institutions, or correctional facilities.
  • Recipients of blood transfusions before 1992, or more recent recipients of improperly screened blood
  • Injection drug users, past and present 
  • People who get tattoos or body piercing 
  • People who use roadside doctors, dentists or barbers

 

What are the recommendations for the hepatitis B vaccine?
The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants and children up to age 18 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC also recommends that adults in high-risk groups be vaccinated.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that is recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults living with diabetes and those at high risk for infection due to their jobs, lifestyle, living situations, or country of birth. Since everyone is at some risk, all adults should seriously consider getting the hepatitis B vaccine for a lifetime protection against a preventable chronic liver disease.


Is the hepatitis B vaccine safe?
Yes, the hepatitis B vaccine is very safe and effective. In fact, it is the first “anti-cancer vaccine” because it can protect you from hepatitis B, which is the cause of 80% of all liver cancer in the world.

With more than one billion doses given throughout the world, medical and scientific studies have shown the hepatitis B vaccine to be one of the safest vaccines ever made.


Can I get hepatitis B from the vaccine?
No, you cannot get hepatitis B from the vaccine. The vaccine is made from a synthetic yeast product in a laboratory. The most common side effects are redness and soreness in the arm where the shot is given.


What is the hepatitis B vaccine schedule?
The hepatitis B vaccine is available at your doctor's office and local health department or clinic. Three doses are generally required to complete the hepatitis B vaccine series, although there is an accelerated two-dose series for adolescents age 11 through 15 years, and there is a new 2-dose vaccine that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults in 2017. It is important to remember that babies born to infected mothers must receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine in the delivery room or within the first 12 hours of life.

  • 1st Shot - At any given time, but newborns should receive this dose in the delivery room
  • 2nd Shot - At least one month (or 28 days) after the 1st shot
  • 3rd Shot - Six months after the 1st shot (or at least 2 months after the 2nd shot)

There must be at least 16 weeks between the 1st and 3rd shot. If your vaccine schedule has been delayed, you do not need to start the series over, you can continue from where you have left off – even if there have been years between doses.

To be certain that you are protected against hepatitis B, ask for a simple blood test to check your “hepatitis B antibody titers” (HBsAb) which will confirm whether the vaccination was successful.


What else can I do to protect myself from hepatitis B?

Since hepatitis B is spread through infected blood and infected body fluids, there are several simple things that you can do to protect yourself from possible infection until your vaccination is complete:

  • Avoid touching blood or any bodily fluids directly 
  • Use condoms with sexual partners 
  • Avoid illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse, including injection of such drugs 
  • Avoid sharing sharp objects such as razors, toothbrushes, earrings, and nail clippers 
  • Make sure that sterile needles and equipment are used for medicine, the dentist, acupuncture, tattoos, ear and body piercing 
  • Wear gloves and use a fresh solution of bleach and water to clean up blood spills 
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after touching or cleaning up blood 
  • Most importantly, make sure you receive the hepatitis B vaccine!