Hepatitis B Foundation

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瞭解乙型肝炎驗血

我爲何應當接受乙型肝炎驗血?

如果您是華人或亞裔人士,則您應當接受驗血,因爲您患上乙型肝炎的風險較高。這是一項非常簡單的驗血。驗血可在醫生診所中迅速進行。即使您感覺良好,您仍有在不知情的情况下受到感染的風險。

我爲什麽需要瞭解自己是否患有乙型肝炎?

因爲您希望作出明智的健康决定。如驗血顯示您幷未受到感染,則您應當通過注射疫苗保護自己。如您已從感染“康復”,則您無需注射疫苗,因爲您已受到保護。如果您被慢性乙型肝炎感染,則您應當尋求一名勝任的醫生治療,避免將病毒傳染給他人,幷確保自己的親人接受化驗和疫苗注射。

我的醫生會囑咐進行何種驗血?

乙型肝炎驗血非常簡單,幷可在醫生診所中迅速進行。有三種常見的驗血,在驗血時從您身上抽取一份血樣﹕

1.乙型肝炎表面抗原(HBsAg)—這直接化驗是否有病毒存在。如果化驗呈陽性,則您可能已受到乙型肝炎感染。這一化驗可能必須進行多次,以確認您是否已受到慢性感染。

2.乙型肝炎表面抗體(HBsAbanti-HBs)—這化驗您的免疫系統爲了抵抗病毒而製造的“表面抗體”。如果您已“康復”,該化驗則呈陽性,但這一過程可能最多需要六個月。這一“表面抗體”將保護您終生不再受乙型肝炎感傳染。如果您已接受乙型肝炎疫苗注射,該化驗亦呈陽性。

3.乙型肝炎核心抗體(HBcAb anti-HBc)—這化驗病毒中稱爲“核心抗體”的部分,但不能爲您提供保護。如該化驗呈陽性,則您可能已受乙型肝炎病毒感染。該化驗的結果僅限于與上述其它兩種化驗共同判讀。

乙型肝炎驗血有何意義?

務必要求您的醫生明確告知您是否爲乙型肝炎“表面抗體”陽性,這意味著您已從感染中康復。或者您是否爲乙型肝炎 “表面抗原”陽性,這意味著您可能已感染病毒。請記住, 乙型肝炎 “核心抗體”僅僅意味著您可能已暴露于乙型肝炎病毒。您的醫生應當綜合所有三種化驗結果,以便作出明確的診斷。

下文對常見化驗結果予以簡單解釋。請將本圖携帶給醫生,以便討論您的化驗結果。請記住, 本圖僅僅是指南。您的醫生必須確認您的驗血結果和您的診斷。請務必索要一份您的驗血結果。

乙型肝炎驗血結果—簡圖

在獲得您的驗血結果時,請將本圖携帶給醫生。您的結果可能與本圖不同,因此,請要求您的醫生明確解釋您的結果的意義。在您離開診所之前,請務必索要一份您的驗血結果—如醫生非常匆忙,您不妨向護士索要該結果。

化驗

結果

判讀

建議

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗體

 乙型肝炎核心抗體

陰性

陰性

陰性

幷非免疫—尚未受到
感染,但仍有在
今後受到感染的風險。
需要保護。接受疫苗

接受疫苗注射。

 

 

 

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗體

 乙型肝炎核心抗體

陰性

陽性

陰性或陽性

免疫—有表面抗體存
在。您可能已接受疫苗
注射。或者您可能已從
以前的乙型肝炎感染中
康復。您不可能傳染他
人。

無需注射疫苗。

 

 

 

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗體

乙型肝炎核心抗體

陽性

陰性

陰性或陽性

新感染或慢性携帶者—
陽性表面抗原,這意味著
有乙型肝炎病毒存在。您

無需注射疫苗。尋求良醫。

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗體

乙型肝炎核心抗體

陰性

陰性

陽性

*不明確。可作出數種不同
判讀。您可能需要重複進行
此類化驗。詳見下文。

不一定需要注射疫苗 。

 

*不明確的驗血結果﹕ 在乙型肝炎核心抗體是唯一陽性結果時。
1.您可能正在從最近的乙型肝炎感染中康復。
2. 您可能能够免疫,但是血液中的表面抗體含量過低,而使本化驗無法測出。
3. 這可能是假陽性,幷意味著化驗必須重新進行。
4. 您可能是慢性携帶者,但是血液中的表面抗原(即病毒數量)含量過低,而無法測出。您的醫生可囑咐進行其它更爲靈敏的化驗。

 

Understanding Hepatitis B Blood Tests

Why should I get tested for hepatitis B?
If you are Chinese or of Asian descent, then you should be tested because you are at higher risk for having hepatitis B. It is a very simple blood test. The test can be done quickly in the doctor's office. Even if you feel well, there is a risk that you could be infected and not know it.

Why do I need to know whether I have hepatitis B or not?
Because you want to make good health decisions. If the blood test shows that you have not been infected, then you should protect yourself through vaccination. If you have "recovered" from an infection, then you don't need the vaccine because you are already protected. If you have a chronic hepatitis B infection, then you should find a doctor for good medical care, avoid spreading the virus to others, and make sure your loved ones are tested and vaccinated.

What kind of blood tests will my doctor order?
The hepatitis B blood test is very simple and can be done quickly in the doctor's office. There are 3 common tests that are done with the one sample of blood taken from you:

  1. Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) - this tests directly for the presence of virus. If it is positive, then you may have a hepatitis B infection. This test may have to be repeated to confirm whether you have a chronic infection.

  2. Hepatitis B surface Antibody (HBsAb or anti-HBs) - this tests for the "surface antibody" that your immune system makes to fight off the virus. It will be positive if you have "recovered", but this can take up to six months. This "surface antibody" will protect you for life against any future hepatitis B infections. The test will also be positive if you have received the hepatitis B vaccine.

  3. Hepatitis B core Antibody (HBcAb or anti-HBc) - this tests for a part of the virus called the "core antibody". It does not protect you. If this test is positive, then you may have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. But this test result can only be interpreted in relation to the above two tests.

What do the hepatitis B blood tests mean?
Make sure your doctor clearly tells you whether you have a positive hepatitis B "surface antibody", which means you have recovered from an infection. Or whether you have a positive hepatitis B "surface antigen", which means you may be infected with the virus. Remember that the hepatitis B "core antibody" only means that you may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. Your doctor should have all three test results in order to make a clear diagnosis.

A simple explanation of common test results is provided below. Take this chart to your doctor as a way of beginning a discussion about your test results. Remember, this chart is only a guideline. Your doctor must confirm your blood test results and your diagnosis. Be sure to ask for a written copy of your blood test results.

Hepatitis B Blood Test Results - A Simple Chart

Take this chart to your doctor when getting your blood test results. Your results could be different from this chart, so ask your doctor to clearly explain what your test results mean. Before you leave the office, make sure you get a written copy of all your blood test results -- you can ask the nurse for a copy if the doctor is in a hurry.

Tests

Results

Interpretation

Recommendation

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

negative

negative

negative

Not immune - has not been infected, but is still at risk for possible future infection. Needs protection.

Get the vaccine.

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

negative

positive

negative or positive

Immune - surface antibodies present. You may have been already vaccinated. Or you have recovered from a prior hepatitis B infection. You cannot infect others.

The vaccine is not needed.

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

positive

negative

negative or positive

New infection or a Chronic Carrier - positive surface antigen, which means hepatitis B virus is present. You can spread the virus to others.

The vaccine is not needed. Find a good doctor who knows how to manage and treat hepatitis B.

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

negative

negative

positive

*Unclear - Several different interpretations are possible. You may need to have these tests repeated. See below.

The vaccine may or may not be needed.
Find a good doctor who knows how to manage and treat hepatitis B.

*Unclear Blood Test Result: when the HBcAb (hepatitis B core antibody) is the only positive test.
1. You may be recovering from a new hepatitis B infection.
2. You may be immune, but the surface antibodies levels in the blood are too low to be detected by this test.
3. This may be a false positive, which means the test has to be repeated.
4. You may be a chronic carrier, but the surface antigens (e.g. virus levels) in the blood are too low to be detected. There are additional blood tests that are more sensitive and can be ordered by your doctor.