Hepatitis B Foundation

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孕妇与乙型肝炎

我如果怀孕,是否应当接受乙型肝炎化验?

是。所有孕妇均应由其医生予以化验。但是,亚裔妇女必须接受化验,因为他们被乙型肝炎感染的风险要高得多。

我如果怀孕,是否应当接受疫苗注射?

请与您的医生讨论乙型肝炎 疫苗。如果验血表明您并未患有乙型肝炎,则医生可能希望等到宝宝出生之后给您注射疫苗。如您的先生或性伙伴患有乙型肝炎,如您与患有乙型肝炎的家人有密切接触,或者如果您的工作使您有被传染的高风险,则您的医生可能希望开始注射疫苗。但是,您必须与您的医生共同作出这项决定。

如果我患有乙型肝炎,我的宝宝是否会受到影响?

乙型肝炎通常不会影响您的尚未出生的宝宝。大多数患有乙型肝炎的孕妇都没有任何问题。但是,告知医生您是否患有乙型肝炎非常重要,以便其能够在您的整个孕期对您予以密切监测。

如果我患有乙型肝炎,我会如何影响我的宝宝?

您可能在分娩时将病毒传染给您的新生婴儿。妇女在分娩时会交换大量血液—病毒即在母亲的血液中通过脐带传染给新生儿。血液交换在生产前发生。 因此,您无法通过选择剖腹产来避免将病毒传染给您的新生婴儿。无论您是自然生产还是通过手术生产,乙型肝炎病毒均有可能被传染。

为什么将乙型肝炎病毒传染给我的新生婴儿是严重的事情?

新生儿如暴露于乙型肝炎,则有90%以上的机率转变为慢性感染。他们免疫系统无法清除病毒,因此他们可能成为“慢性携带者”。这意味着病毒将长期停留在其肝脏内。他们可能会将病毒传染给他人。他们在今后患上严重肝病的机率也较高。

如果我患有乙型肝炎,我如何能够保护我的新生婴儿?

好消息是现在有一种疫苗能够保护你的新生婴儿。但是您必须使您的新生婴儿在产房中接受疫苗注射。

1.务必在您分娩前数周提醒您的医生进行乙型肝炎疫苗注射,并在可能情况下注射一剂乙型肝免疫球蛋白(HBIG)。您的医生事务繁多,因此可能会忘记嘱咐注射此类药物。即使无法获得乙型肝炎免疫球蛋也并不必过于担心。乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白是一种能够提升疫苗功能的药物,但其重要性不如疫苗本身。
2.告诉您的医生,您希望在产房中给您的宝宝注射乙型肝炎疫苗和乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白。这应确保医生或护士不要忘记在分娩后立即给您的新生宝宝注射这两种药物。请要求您的伙伴或先生确保这两种药物得到注射,因为您可能过于疲劳,而顾不上提出请求。

我的宝宝为何应当在产房中接受疫苗注射?

为了保护您的宝宝不受到慢性感染,必须在其出生后12个小时以内注射疫苗。这是一个持续时间很短的机会。您没有第二次机会!如在宝宝出生后12个小时以内注射疫苗,则您的宝宝有95%的机率获得保护,不受到乙型肝炎病毒感染。如未能正确地注射疫苗 ,则您的宝宝非常可能终生受到乙型肝炎的慢性感染。

 

Pregnant Women and Hepatitis B

Should I get tested for hepatitis B if I am pregnant?
Yes, ALL pregnant women should be tested by their doctors. But women of Asian descent must be tested since they are at much higher risk for hepatitis B infection.

If I am pregnant, should I get vaccinated?
Talk to your doctor about the hepatitis B vaccine. If your blood tests show that you do not have hepatitis B, then he or she may want to wait until after the baby is born. If your husband or sexual partner has hepatitis B, if you live in close contact with a family member who has hepatitis B, or you have a job that places you at high risk for infection, then your doctor may want to start the vaccine. But this is a decision you must make with your doctor.

If I have hepatitis B, will my unborn baby be affected?
Hepatitis B does not usually affect the health of your unborn baby. And most pregnant women with hepatitis B do not have any problems. But, it is important for the doctor to know whether you have hepatitis B so they can watch you closely throughout your pregnancy.

If I have hepatitis B, how can I infect my newborn baby?
You can pass the virus on to your newborn baby during delivery. When a woman goes into labor, there is a massive exchange of blood -- the virus is passed in the mother's blood to the newborn through the umbilical cord. The blood exchange occurs before delivery. Therefore, you cannot prevent infecting your newborn by choosing to have a C-section. The hepatitis B virus is passed whether you give birth naturally or through surgery.

Why is it so serious if my newborn is infected with hepatitis B?
Newborns who are exposed to hepatitis B have more than a 90% chance of becoming chronically infected. Their immune systems are not able to get rid of the virus, so they can become a "chronic carrier". This means the virus stays in their liver for a long time. They can pass the virus on to others. They will also live with a greater chance of developing serious liver disease later in life

If I have hepatitis B, what can I do to protect my newborn?
The good news is that there is a vaccine to protect your newborn baby. But you have to make your newborn is vaccinated in the delivery room.

* Make sure to remind your doctor several weeks before you deliver to order the hepatitis B vaccine and if possible, one dose of hepatitis B immuneglobulin (HBiG). Your doctor has many things on his mind, so he may forget to order these drugs. If the HBiG drug is not available, don't get upset. HBiG is a drug that can help increase the effectiveness of the vaccine, but it is not as important as the vaccine itself.

* Tell your doctor that you want the hepatitis B vaccine and HBiG to be given to your baby in the delivery room. This request is to make certain the doctor or nurse doesn't forget to give your new baby the two drugs right after delivery. Ask your partner or husband to make sure that these drugs are given since you may be too tired to ask.

Why should my baby be vaccinated in the delivery room?
To protect your baby from a chronic infection, the vaccine must be given within the FIRST 12 HOURS OF LIFE. This is a very small window of opportunity. You don't get a second chance! If the vaccine is given within the first 12 hours of life, then your baby has a greater than 95% chance of being protected from the hepatitis B virus. If the vaccine is not given correctly, then your baby will most likely become chronically infected with hepatitis B for a lifetime.