Hepatitis B Foundation

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了解乙型肝炎验血

我为何应当接受乙型肝炎验血?

如果您是华人或亚裔人士,则您应当接受验血,因为您患上乙型肝炎的风险较高。这是一项非常简单的验血。验血可在医生诊所中迅速进行。即使您感觉良好,您仍有在不知情的情况下受到感染的风险。

我为什么需要了解自己是否患有乙型肝炎?

因为您希望作出明智的健康决定。如验血显示您并未受到感染,则您应当通过注射疫苗保护自己。如您已从感染“康复”,则您无需注射疫苗,因为您已受到保护。如果您被慢性乙型肝炎感染,则您应当寻求一名胜任的医生治疗,避免将病毒传染给他人,并确保自己的亲人接受化验和疫苗注射。

我的医生会嘱咐进行何种验血?

乙型肝炎验血非常简单,并可在医生诊所中迅速进行。有三种常见的验血,在验血时从您身上抽取一份血样﹕

1.乙型肝炎表面抗原(HBsAg)—这直接化验是否有病毒存在。如果化验呈阳性,则您可能已受到乙型肝炎感染。这一化验可能必须进行多次,以确认您是否已受到慢性感染。

2.乙型肝炎表面抗体(HBsAbanti-HBs)—这化验您的免疫系统为了抵抗病毒而制造的“表面抗体”。如果您已“康复”,该化验则呈阳性,但这一过程可能最多需要六个月。这一“表面抗体”将保护您终生不再受乙型肝炎感传染。如果您已接受乙型肝炎疫苗注射,该化验亦呈阳性。

3.乙型肝炎核心抗体(HBcAb anti-HBc)—这化验病毒中称为“核心抗体”的部分,但不能为您提供保护。如该化验呈阳性,则您可能已受乙型肝炎病毒感染。该化验的结果仅限于与上述其它两种化验共同判读。

乙型肝炎验血有何意义?

务必要求您的医生明确告知您是否为乙型肝炎“表面抗体”阳性,这意味着您已从感染中康复。或者您是否为乙型肝炎 “表面抗原”阳性,这意味着您可能已感染病毒。请记住, 乙型肝炎 “核心抗体”仅仅意味着您可能已暴露于乙型肝炎病毒。您的医生应当综合所有三种化验结果,以便作出明确的诊断。

下文对常见化验结果予以简单解释。请将本图携带给医生,以便讨论您的化验结果。请记住, 本图仅仅是指南。您的医生必须确认您的验血结果和您的诊断。请务必索要一份您的验血结果。

乙型肝炎验血结果—简图

在获得您的验血结果时,请将本图携带给医生。您的结果可能与本图不同,因此,请要求您的医生明确解释您的结果的意义。在您离开诊所之前,请务必索要一份您的验血结果—如医生非常匆忙,您不妨向护士索要该结果。

化验

结果

判读

建议

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗体

 乙型肝炎核心抗体

阴性

阴性

阴性

并非免疫—尚未受到
感染,但仍有在
今后受到感染的风险。
需要保护。接受疫苗

接受疫苗注射。

 

 

 

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗体

 乙型肝炎核心抗体

阴性

阳性

阴性或阳性

免疫—有表面抗体存
在。您可能已接受疫苗
注射。或者您可能已从
以前的乙型肝炎感染中
康复。您不可能传染他
人。

无需注射疫苗。

 

 

 

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗体

乙型肝炎核心抗体

阳性

阴性

阴性或阳性

新感染或慢性携带者—
阳性表面抗原,这意味着
有乙型肝炎病毒存在。您

无需注射疫苗。寻求良医。

乙型肝炎表面抗原

乙型肝炎表面抗体

乙型肝炎核心抗体

阴性

阴性

阳性

*不明确。可作出数种不同
判读。您可能需要重复进行
此类化验。详见下文。

不一定需要注射疫苗 。

*不明确的验血结果﹕ 在乙型肝炎核心抗体是唯一阳性结果时。
1.您可能正在从最近的乙型肝炎感染中康复。
2. 您可能能够免疫,但是血液中的表面抗体含量过低,而使本化验无法测出。
3. 这可能是假阳性,并意味着化验必须重新进行。
4. 您可能是慢性携带者,但是血液中的表面抗原(即病毒数量)含量过低,而无法测出。您的医生可嘱咐进行其它更为灵敏的化验。

 

Understanding Hepatitis B Blood Tests

Why should I get tested for hepatitis B?
If you are Chinese or of Asian descent, then you should be tested because you are at higher risk for having hepatitis B. It is a very simple blood test. The test can be done quickly in the doctor's office. Even if you feel well, there is a risk that you could be infected and not know it.

Why do I need to know whether I have hepatitis B or not?
Because you want to make good health decisions. If the blood test shows that you have not been infected, then you should protect yourself through vaccination. If you have "recovered" from an infection, then you don't need the vaccine because you are already protected. If you have a chronic hepatitis B infection, then you should find a doctor for good medical care, avoid spreading the virus to others, and make sure your loved ones are tested and vaccinated.

What kind of blood tests will my doctor order?
The hepatitis B blood test is very simple and can be done quickly in the doctor's office. There are 3 common tests that are done with the one sample of blood taken from you:

  1. Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) - this tests directly for the presence of virus. If it is positive, then you may have a hepatitis B infection. This test may have to be repeated to confirm whether you have a chronic infection.

  2. Hepatitis B surface Antibody (HBsAb or anti-HBs) - this tests for the "surface antibody" that your immune system makes to fight off the virus. It will be positive if you have "recovered", but this can take up to six months. This "surface antibody" will protect you for life against any future hepatitis B infections. The test will also be positive if you have received the hepatitis B vaccine.

  3. Hepatitis B core Antibody (HBcAb or anti-HBc) - this tests for a part of the virus called the "core antibody". It does not protect you. If this test is positive, then you may have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. But this test result can only be interpreted in relation to the above two tests.

What do the hepatitis B blood tests mean?
Make sure your doctor clearly tells you whether you have a positive hepatitis B "surface antibody", which means you have recovered from an infection. Or whether you have a positive hepatitis B "surface antigen", which means you may be infected with the virus. Remember that the hepatitis B "core antibody" only means that you may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. Your doctor should have all three test results in order to make a clear diagnosis.

A simple explanation of common test results is provided below. Take this chart to your doctor as a way of beginning a discussion about your test results. Remember, this chart is only a guideline. Your doctor must confirm your blood test results and your diagnosis. Be sure to ask for a written copy of your blood test results.

Hepatitis B Blood Test Results - A Simple Chart

Take this chart to your doctor when getting your blood test results. Your results could be different from this chart, so ask your doctor to clearly explain what your test results mean. Before you leave the office, make sure you get a written copy of all your blood test results -- you can ask the nurse for a copy if the doctor is in a hurry.

Tests

Results

Interpretation

Recommendation

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

negative

negative

negative

Not immune - has not been infected, but is still at risk for possible future infection. Needs protection.

Get the vaccine.

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

negative

positive

negative or positive

Immune - surface antibodies present. You may have been already vaccinated. Or you have recovered from a prior hepatitis B infection. You cannot infect others.

The vaccine is not needed.

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

positive

negative

negative or positive

New infection or a Chronic Carrier - positive surface antigen, which means hepatitis B virus is present. You can spread the virus to others.

The vaccine is not needed. Find a good doctor who knows how to manage and treat hepatitis B.

HBsAg

HBsAb (anti-HBs)

HBcAb (anti-HBc)

negative

negative

positive

*Unclear - Several different interpretations are possible. You may need to have these tests repeated. See below.

The vaccine may or may not be needed.
Find a good doctor who knows how to manage and treat hepatitis B.

*Unclear Blood Test Result: when the HBcAb (hepatitis B core antibody) is the only positive test.
1. You may be recovering from a new hepatitis B infection.
2. You may be immune, but the surface antibodies levels in the blood are too low to be detected by this test.
3. This may be a false positive, which means the test has to be repeated.
4. You may be a chronic carrier, but the surface antigens (e.g. virus levels) in the blood are too low to be detected. There are additional blood tests that are more sensitive and can be ordered by your doctor.