Hepatitis B Foundation

 

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Genel Bilgiler

Hepatit B nedir?

Hepatit B’nin etkiledigi dunya nufusu nedir?

Hepatit B neden cok tehlikelidir?

“Akut” hepatit B nedir?

“Kronik” hepatit B nedir?

Hepatit B’nin kesin tedavisi (çaresi, şifasi) varmidir?

Hepatit B nedir?

Hepatit B dunyadaki en yaygin karaciger enfeksiyonudur.  Karcagire dogrudan saldirarak hasar veren hepatit B virusunun (HBV) neden oldugu bir hastaliktir.  Kan, korunmasiz seks, paylasilan yada tekrar tekrar kullanilan siringalar yoluyla ve hamilelik, yada dogum sirasinda hepatitli anneden bebege gecer.  Hepatit B ile enfekte olmus yetiskinlerin buyuk cogunlugu, hicbir sorunla karsilasmadan bu virusten kurtulabilir.  Ancak enfekte olmus yetiskinler bir bolumu ve bebek ve kucuk cocuklarin cogunlugu virusten kurtulamamakta ve kronik enfeksiyon gelistirmektedir. 

Ancak, umut verici olan, hepatit B virusunden korunmak icin guvenilir bir asi ve enfeksiyona yakalanmis hastalar icin de yeni ve basarili tedavi yontemlerinin bulunmasidir.   

Hepatit B’nin etkiledigi dunya nufusu nedir ?

Tum dunyada 2 milyar (her 3 kisiden 1 kisi) hepatit B ile enfekte olmus ve 400 milyon kronik hepatit B’li (yani virsu vucuttan atmayi basaramamis) hasta vardir. Her yil yaklasik 1 milyon insan hepatit B ve onun neden oldugu komplikasyonlardan yasamlarini yitirmektedir.

Hepatit B neden cok tehlikelidir?

Hepatit B tehlikelidir cunku “sinsi bir enfeksiyon“dur, insan farkinda olmadan bulasabilir.  Enfekte olmus kisilerin cogu virus tasidiklarinin farkinda bile degildir ve dolaysiyla hastalik etkeni virus kan yada diger vucut sivilari yoluyla kisden kisiye tasinir.  

Virsule kronik olarak enfekte olmus hastlarda ileri yaslarda siroz ve/veya karaciger kanseri gelisme riski giderek artar.  Virus, uzun yillar sessizce ve surekli olarak karacigere hasar vermeye devam eder. 

“Akut” hepatit B nedir?

“Akut” hepatit B enfeksiyonu, vucudun hepatit B virusu ile ilk kez karsilasmasidir. Virusun vucuda ilk girisini takiben, bazi kisilerde nezle/gribi andiran bulgular gorulurken, buyuk cogunlugunda hicbir belirti gorulmez.

Saglikli yetiskinlerin buyuk cogunlugu ilk 6 ay icerisinde, tani konmadan, hastalik nedeni olan virusten basarili sekilde kurtulabilirler. Diger bir deyisle, enfeksiyonun ilk 6 ayinda, bagisiklik sistemi virusle savasarak hastalik olusturmasini engellemeye calisir ve genellikle basarir. Ancak, akut enfeksiyon surecinde kisi bulasiciligini korur ve virusu digerlerine de bulastirabilir.

Saglikli yetiskinlerin yuzde 90% virusten kurtulup tamamen iyilesebilir ve bu durum kan testi ile onaylanabilir. Bir kez virusten kurtulduktan sonra, kisi artik hastaligi bulastirmaz ve hepatit B virusune karsi bagisiklik gelistirmis olur.      

“Kronik” hepatit B nedir?

Eger kan testleri, 6 aydan uzun bir sure da hepatit B pozitif cikiyorsa, o kiside enfeksiyon “kronik” hepatit B olarak tanimlanir.  Kronik hepatit B enfeksiyonu bir yasam boyu surebilir.  Hepatit B’ye yakalanmis yetiskinlerin yuzde 10% oraninda bir kesimi virusten kurtulamamakta ve “kronik hepatit B” enfeksiyonu gelistirmektedir.

Hepatit B’nin kesin tedavisi (caresi) varmidir?
“Akut” hepatit B enfeksiyonun genellikle tedavi gereksindirmez, semptomlar sadece dinlenerek ve diger destekleyici saglik tedbirlerliyle kontrol altina alinabilir.  Amerika’da, “Kronik” hepatit B’ nin tedavisini icin onaylanmis 7 ilac vardir: Intron A, Pegasys, Epivir-HBV, Hepsera, Baraclude, Tyzeka, ve Viread.  Bu ilaclarin hepsi virusun ilerlemesini yavaslatir ve olasi karaciger hasarlarini azaltir.  Cok ender durumlarda, bu ilaclar virusu tamamen de yok edebilir.  Hepatit B’nin tedavisinde kullanilmak uzere gelistirilmekte olan diger umut verici ilac listesi icin “Ilac Izleme” (Drug Watch) sayfamizi ziyaret ediniz.    

 

General Information

What is hepatitis B?

How many people are affected by hepatitis B?

Why is hepatitis B so dangerous?

What is "acute" hepatitis B?

What is "chronic" hepatitis B?

Is there a cure for hepatitis B?

What is hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is the world's most common liver infection.  It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which attacks and injures the liver.  It is transmitted through blood, unprotected sex, shared or re-used needles, and from an infected mother to her newborn baby during pregnancy or delivery.  Most infected adults are able to get rid of the hepatitis B virus without any problems.  However, some adults and most infected babies and children are unable to get rid of the virus and will develop chronic infections.

The good news is that there is a safe vaccine to prevent a hepatitis B infection and new treatments for those already infected with hepatitis B. 

How many people are affected by hepatitis B?

Worldwide, 2 billion people (1 out of 3 people) have been infected with hepatitis B.  400 million people have become chronically infected (which means they are unable to get rid of the virus).  An estimated 1 million people die each year from hepatitis B and its complications.

Why is hepatitis B so dangerous?

Hepatitis B is dangerous because it is a “silent infection” that can infect people without them knowing it.  Most people who are infected with hepatitis B are unaware of their infection and can unknowingly pass the virus to others through their blood and infected bodily fluids. 

For those who become chronically infected, there is an increased risk of developing serious cirrhosis and/or liver cancer later in life.  The virus can quietly and continuously attack the liver over many years without being detected. 

What is acute hepatitis B?

An “acute” hepatitis B infection refers to the first time a person has been exposed to the hepatitis B virus.  Some people might feel like they have the flu, but most people don’t have any symptoms after they are first infected.

For most healthy adults, it can take up to 6 months to successfully get rid of the virus. In other words, the immune system will fight off the virus within the first 6 months after the initial infection.  During an acute infection, a person is contagious and able to pass the virus on to others.

90% of healthy adults are able to "recover" by getting rid of the virus, which is confirmed by a blood test.  Once a person has recovered, they are no longer contagious and are immune to future hepatitis B infections. 

What is chronic hepatitis B?

A person is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B if they test positive for the hepatitis B virus for longer than 6 months.  A chronic hepatitis B infection may stay with the person for a lifetime.  About 10% of adults who contract hepatitis B will not be able to get rid of the virus and they develop a “chronic hepatitis B” infection.

Is there a cure for hepatitis B?

For an "acute" infection, there is generally no treatment other than rest and supportive measures to manage any symptoms.  For "chronic" hepatitis B, there are 7 approved drugs in the US: Intron A, Pegasys, Epivir-HBV, Hepsera, Baraclude, Tyzeka and Viread.  These drugs slow down the virus and reduce potential liver damage.  In rare cases, they may even get rid of the virus completely.  For a complete list of other promising drugs in development for hepatitis B, visit our Drug Watch.