Hepatitis B Foundation

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孕婦與乙型肝炎

我如果懷孕,是否應當接受乙型肝炎化驗?

是。所有孕婦均應由其醫生予以化驗。但是,亞裔婦女必須接受化驗,因爲他們被乙型肝炎感染的風險要高得多。

我如果懷孕,是否應當接受疫苗注射?

請與您的醫生討論乙型肝炎 疫苗。如果驗血表明您幷未患有乙型肝炎,則醫生可能希望等到寶寶出生之後給您注射疫苗。如您的先生或性夥伴患有乙型肝炎,如您與患有乙型肝炎的家人有密切接觸,或者如果您的工作使您有被傳染的高風險,則您的醫生可能希望開始注射疫苗。但是,您必須與您的醫生共同作出這項决定。

如果我患有乙型肝炎,我的寶寶是否會受到影響?

乙型肝炎通常不會影響您的尚未出生的寶寶。大多數患有乙型肝炎的孕婦都沒有任何問題。但是,告知醫生您是否患有乙型肝炎非常重要,以便其能够在您的整個孕期對您予以密切監測。

如果我患有乙型肝炎,我會如何影響我的寶寶?

您可能在分娩時將病毒傳染給您的新生嬰兒。婦女在分娩時會交換大量血液—病毒即在母親的血液中通過臍帶傳染給新生兒。血液交換在生産前發生。 因此,您無法通過選擇剖腹産來避免將病毒傳染給您的新生嬰兒。無論您是自然生産還是通過手術生産,乙型肝炎病毒均有可能被傳染。

爲什麽將乙型肝炎病毒傳染給我的新生嬰兒是嚴重的事情?

新生兒如暴露于乙型肝炎,則有90%以上的機率轉變爲慢性感染。他們免疫系統無法清除病毒,因此他們可能成爲“慢性携帶者”。這意味著病毒將長期停留在其肝臟內。他們可能會將病毒傳染給他人。他們在今後患上嚴重肝病的機率也較高。

如果我患有乙型肝炎,我如何能够保護我的新生嬰兒?

好消息是現在有一種疫苗能够保護你的新生嬰兒。但是您必須使您的新生嬰兒在産房中接受疫苗注射。

1.務必在您分娩前數周提醒您的醫生進行乙型肝炎疫苗注射,幷在可能情况下注射一劑乙型肝免疫球蛋白(HBIG)。您的醫生事務繁多,因此可能會忘記囑咐注射此類藥物。即使無法

獲得乙型肝炎免疫球蛋也幷不必過于擔心。乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白是一種能够提升疫苗功能的藥物,但其重要性不如疫苗本身。

2.告訴您的醫生,您希望在産房中給您的寶寶注射乙型肝炎疫苗和乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白。這應確保醫生或護士不要忘記在分娩後立即給您的新生寶寶注射這兩種藥物。請要求您的夥伴或先生確保這兩種藥物得到注射,因爲您可能過于疲勞,而顧不上提出請求。

我的寶寶爲何應當在産房中接受疫苗注射?

爲了保護您的寶寶不受到慢性感染,必須在其出生後12個小時以內注射疫苗。這是一個持續時間很短的機會。您沒有第二次機會!如在寶寶出生後12個小時以內注射疫苗,則您的寶寶有95%的機率獲得保護,不受到乙型肝炎病毒感染。如未能正確地注射疫苗 ,則您的寶寶非常可能終生受到乙型肝炎的慢性感染。

 

Pregnant Women and Hepatitis B

Should I get tested for hepatitis B if I am pregnant?
Yes, ALL pregnant women should be tested by their doctors. But women of Asian descent must be tested since they are at much higher risk for hepatitis B infection.

If I am pregnant, should I get vaccinated?
Talk to your doctor about the hepatitis B vaccine. If your blood tests show that you do not have hepatitis B, then he or she may want to wait until after the baby is born. If your husband or sexual partner has hepatitis B, if you live in close contact with a family member who has hepatitis B, or you have a job that places you at high risk for infection, then your doctor may want to start the vaccine. But this is a decision you must make with your doctor.

If I have hepatitis B, will my unborn baby be affected?
Hepatitis B does not usually affect the health of your unborn baby. And most pregnant women with hepatitis B do not have any problems. But, it is important for the doctor to know whether you have hepatitis B so they can watch you closely throughout your pregnancy.

If I have hepatitis B, how can I infect my newborn baby?
You can pass the virus on to your newborn baby during delivery. When a woman goes into labor, there is a massive exchange of blood -- the virus is passed in the mother's blood to the newborn through the umbilical cord. The blood exchange occurs before delivery. Therefore, you cannot prevent infecting your newborn by choosing to have a C-section. The hepatitis B virus is passed whether you give birth naturally or through surgery.

Why is it so serious if my newborn is infected with hepatitis B?
Newborns who are exposed to hepatitis B have more than a 90% chance of becoming chronically infected. Their immune systems are not able to get rid of the virus, so they can become a "chronic carrier". This means the virus stays in their liver for a long time. They can pass the virus on to others. They will also live with a greater chance of developing serious liver disease later in life

If I have hepatitis B, what can I do to protect my newborn?
The good news is that there is a vaccine to protect your newborn baby. But you have to make your newborn is vaccinated in the delivery room.

* Make sure to remind your doctor several weeks before you deliver to order the hepatitis B vaccine and if possible, one dose of hepatitis B immuneglobulin (HBiG). Your doctor has many things on his mind, so he may forget to order these drugs. If the HBiG drug is not available, don't get upset. HBiG is a drug that can help increase the effectiveness of the vaccine, but it is not as important as the vaccine itself.

* Tell your doctor that you want the hepatitis B vaccine and HBiG to be given to your baby in the delivery room. This request is to make certain the doctor or nurse doesn't forget to give your new baby the two drugs right after delivery. Ask your partner or husband to make sure that these drugs are given since you may be too tired to ask.

Why should my baby be vaccinated in the delivery room?
To protect your baby from a chronic infection, the vaccine must be given within the FIRST 12 HOURS OF LIFE. This is a very small window of opportunity. You don't get a second chance! If the vaccine is given within the first 12 hours of life, then your baby has a greater than 95% chance of being protected from the hepatitis B virus. If the vaccine is not given correctly, then your baby will most likely become chronically infected with hepatitis B for a lifetime.