您可要求您的醫生、當地的衛生部門或肝病專家進行一次簡單的乙型肝炎驗血。 這一驗血可在任何醫生診所進行。如果您在紐約市地區居住，您可致電給免費電話 1-888-888-0981瞭解詳情和醫生的轉診。您可以獲得英語、國語和粵語信息。
- Intron A (alpha干扰素) 是一种注射药物， 一周注射数次，用六个月到一年，有时或更久，此药可能会引起象感冒﹑忧郁症和头痛一样症状的副作用，于1991年批准，可用于儿童和成人。
- Pegasys (pegylated interferon：聚乙二醇化干扰素) 是一种注射药物，每周注射一次，通常要连续注射六个月到1年。这种药可能会有副作用，如流感症状、抑郁症和其它心理健康问题。此药于2005年5月获得批准，并仅供成人使用。
- Epivir-HBV 或 Zeffix (lamivudine) 是一种口服药片，一天服用一次，几乎没有副作用﹐服用至少一年或一年以上。主要问题是治疗时和治疗后可能会发生乙型肝炎病毒变异。于1998 年批准，可用于儿童和成人。
- Hepsera (adefovir dipivoxil) 是一种口服药片，一天服用一次，副作用很少，服用至少一年或一年以上。主要问题是服用此药可能会发生肾脏问题。于2002 年9月批准，仅可用于成人。儿科临床试验正在进行中。
- Baraclude (entecavir：恩替卡韦) 是一种每日服用的片剂，可连续服用长达一年而几乎没有任何副作用。这种药在目前用来治疗慢性乙型肝炎的口服抗病毒药物中，被普遍认为是药效最强的一种。此药于2005年4月获得批准，并仅供成人使用。今后可能要进行儿科临床试验。
- Tyzeka (telbivudine) 是一种每日服用的片剂，可连续服用一年而几乎没有任何副作用。研究显示该药能迅速有效地抑制乙肝病毒。于2006年10月批准用于成人。
- Viread (Tenofovir) 是一种每日服用的片剂，可连续服用一年而几乎没有任何副作用。研究显示该药能迅速有效地抑制乙肝病毒。于2008年8月批准用于成人。
Hepatitis B Infections
Will I feel sick when I am first infected with hepatitis
Hepatitis B is considered a "silent infection" because
most people don't have symptoms when they are first infected.
People can get hepatitis B without even knowing it. Some who
are infected may have mild flu-like symptoms which are often
ignored -- they think they just have a cold and then get better
quickly. Others may go to a doctor because they feel more tired
than usual, don't feel like eating, have an upset stomach, or
complain about joint pain. Although severe symptoms are not common
with a new hepatitis B infection, they could include a swollen
stomach or eyes and skin turning yellow (this is called "jaundice").
See your doctor for any unusual symptoms or even if you just
What blood test should I ask my doctor to order?
Make sure that your doctor orders the hepatitis B blood tests.
This is a simple test that can be done in a doctor's office.
If you think you have been recently infected with hepatitis
B, it will take 4 -6 weeks before a blood test will show positive
for the virus. Ask for a written copy of your blood tests.
Make sure your doctor clearly explains your blood test results
so that you know whether you have hepatitis B or not. You need
to know whether you have recovered or whether you have become
chronically infected. Your doctor may check your blood several
times to confirm your diagnosis.
Where can I go to be tested?
You can ask your family doctor, the local health department,
or a liver specialist to order the simple hepatitis B blood
test. This blood test can be done in any doctor's office.
You can also call the GlaxoSmithKline HBV Info and Assistance
line, toll-free at 1-888-888-0981. Information about HBV
and physician referrals across the country are available in English,
Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese.
What will happen if I get infected with hepatitis B?
After a person is first infected with hepatitis B, there are
usually three things that can happen:
- Recovery - 90% of healthy adults who are
infected will "recover" and be completely rid of
the virus within six months. When a blood test shows that the
hepatitis B virus has gone and that "antibodies" have
been made, a person is then considered to have recovered. They
are no longer contagious to others. The "antibodies" protect
them from any future hepatitis B infections. These people do
not need the vaccine since they are already protected.
- Chronic Infections - 10% of infected adults
are unable to get rid of the virus after six months. They are
diagnosed as being "chronic carriers" of hepatitis
B. This means that the virus stays in their blood and liver.
People who are "chronic carriers" of hepatitis B
are able to pass the virus on to others through their blood.
They may also develop serious liver disease later on.
- Acute Liver Failure - Less than 1% of infected
adults can have a severe reaction and die from liver failure
within several weeks after being exposed to the hepatitis B
virus. Liver failure is life-threatening and a person must
get immediate medical care. This is a very rare reaction.
What do all these numbers really mean?
Imagine you are sitting in a room. There are 100 people in this
room, including yourself. The door opens and the hepatitis
B virus walks in and infects everyone. You all go home. Some
people may feel sick a couple weeks later, most of you will
not. Six months later everyone is asked to return to the room
for a simple hepatitis B blood test. The good news is that
90 people will have gotten rid of the virus and "recovered".
They can go home. But 10 people (maybe including you?) have
been unable to get rid of the virus. These 10 people are then
diagnosed as "chronic carriers". They are told to
be careful to avoid infecting others, to test and vaccinate
their loved ones, and to find a doctor who can provide good
medical care. Although this is rare, one person may have an
immediate severe reaction to the hepatitis B virus and die
several weeks later from liver failure.
What happens to babies and children who are infected
with hepatitis B?
Unfortunately, babies and children have a lot more trouble getting
rid of the virus after being infected. Their immune systems are
too young to fight off the virus. So they are at much greater
risk for becoming "chronic carriers" of hepatitis B.
The virus will stay in their blood and liver for a long time,
which increases their risk for serious liver disease later on.
- Recovery - Babies under one year have a
5-10% chance of getting rid of the virus and "recovering".
Children have a 40% chance of getting rid of the virus (whereas,
adults have a 90% chance of recovering).
- Chronic Infections - 90% of infected babies
will never get rid of the virus and will become "chronic
carriers" of hepatitis B -- the virus will stay in their
bodies for a very long time. Children have a 60% chance of
becoming "chronic carriers (whereas, adults have only
a 10% chance of becoming chronically infected).
How will I know if I have "recovered" from
a hepatitis B infection?
A person is considered to have "recovered" when blood
tests show they have gotten rid of the virus. In addition, the
test must show that their immune system has made a "surface
antibody" against the virus. The "surface antibody" is
what protects you from hepatitis B in the future. Until you recover,
which can take up to six months, there is still a risk that you
can spread the virus. Once you have recovered, then you can no
longer infect others. Ask your doctor for this simple blood test.
Do I still the need the hepatitis B vaccine after I
You do not need the vaccine if your blood tests show that you
have recovered. The "surface antibody" that your immune
system makes will protect you against any future hepatitis B
infection. It works just like chicken pox: when you get chicken
pox and recover, your body has successfully made antibodies to
protect you from getting chicken pox again.
What does it mean if my doctor tells me that I'm a "chronic
This means that you have been unable to get rid of the hepatitis
B virus. You have become a "chronic carrier" of the
virus. For some reason your immune system just can't fight off
the hepatitis B virus. It can stay in your blood and liver for
a long time. As a result, you can pass the virus on to others.
You also live with an increased risk for serious liver disease
later in life.
Are there any treatments if I have chronic hepatitis
Currently, there are seven approved drugs in the
United States for people who have chronic hepatitis B infections.
These drugs are also available in China:
- Interferon-alpha (Intron
A) is given by injection several times a week for six months
to a year, or sometimes longer. The drug can cause side effects
such as flu-like symptoms, depression, and headaches. Approved
in 1991 and available for both children and adults.
Interferon (Pegasys) is given by injection once a week
usually for six months to a year. The drug can cause side
effects such as flu-like symptoms, depression and other mental
health problems. Approved May 2005 and available only for
- Lamivudine Epivir-HBV,
Zeffix, or Heptodin) is a pill that is taken once a day, with
almost no side effects, for at least one year or longer. A
primary concern is the possible development of hepatitis B
virus mutants during and after treatment. Approved in 1998
and available for both children and adults.
dipivoxil (Hepsera) is a pill taken once a day, with
few side effects, for at least one year or longer. The primary
concern is that kidney problems can occur while taking the
drug. Approved September 2002 and available only for adults.
Pediatric clinical trials are being planned.
- Entecavir (Baraclude)
is a pill taken once a day, with almost no side effects for
up to one year. It is considered to be the most potent oral
antiviral drug for chronic hepatitis B to date. Approved April
2005 and available only for adults. Pediatric clinical trials
may be planned for the future.
- Telbivudine (Tyzeka)
is a pill taken once a day, with almost no side effects. Approved October
2006 and available only for adults. Pediatric clinical trials
may be planned for the future.
- Tenofovir (Viread) is a pill taken once a day, with few side effects, for at least one year or longer. Approved August 2008 for adults.
It is important to know, not every chronic hepatitis B patient
needs to be on medication. Some patients only need to be monitored
by their doctor on a regular basis (at least once a year, or
more). Other patients with active signs of liver disease may
benefit the most from treatment. Be sure to talk to your doctor
about whether you could benefit from treatment and discuss the
treatment options. In addition, there are promising new drugs
in clinical trials and in the research pipeline.
However, it is vital that all people with chronic hepatitis
B visit their doctor on a regular basis, whether they receive
treatment or not!