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Research at the HBF’s Baruch S. Blumberg Institute

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Hepatitis C is now declared curable. Hepatitis B is still not, despite having been discovered nearly 50 years ago. An interview with Dr. Timothy Block of  the Hepatitis B Foundation and the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute. The future does look bright…

Perhaps this should not be a surprise, thinks Timothy Block, PhD, president and co-founder of the Hepatitis B Foundation (HBF) and its research arm, the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute. According to Block,there are two main reasons for the “cure deficit” between hepatitis B and C — funding and physiology.

He points out that commercial and federal investment in hepatitis C have been far greater than in hepatitis B. And that has clearly paid off in terms of finding a hepatitis C cure. “You get what you pay for,” he observes.

Physiologically, hepatitis B also presents unique challenges not found with hepatitis C — most notably cccDNA (or covalently closed circular DNA), the “mini- chromosome” produced by the hepatitis B virus. The cccDNA persists in the nucleus of the liver cell, where it can hide amidst the host’s own chromosomes, apparently out of reach of the cell’s own defense systems.

Acting like “an indestructible template,” cccDNA continues to produce virus particles throughout the life of the infected liver cell, even in people being treated with antiviral agents.

Hepatitis C, on the other hand, doesn’t enter the cell’s nucleus, so it’s possible to cure a person by stopping this virus from replicating long enough for the liver cells to regenerate.

But remember that people who have been “cured” of hepatitis C can still get re-infected,” Block cautions. The hepatitis C drugs apparently do not trigger an immune response that protects against re-infection.

In contrast, some people can be cured of hepatitis B, either naturally or through drug therapy. These individuals do seem to have long-term protective immunity. “And that’s what we are aiming for,” he declares.

Why We Need a Cure for Hepatitis B 

It can be argued that the approved antiviral agents are very successful in keeping the virus under control. So do we really need a cure? Definitely yes, Block replies emphatically.

Current antiviral drugs are effective, but need to be taken lifelong and are recommended for use in only about half of the infected population. And even after 10 years of use, the antivirals reduce HBV-related diseases by only about 50 to 60 percent. The drugs can also lead to the development of resistant hepatitis B strains (drug resistance).

For those who benefit from treatment, the antiviral drugs have been transformational and prove that medical intervention can be effective. However, there are millions who do not benefit and are still left vulnerable.

Clearly, new approaches to a “functional cure” are needed, which Block defines as “returning the risk of death due to hepatitis B to the level of someone who has a resolved infection.” And the person should not need to take any drugs to stay at this low-risk level.

Targeted Strategy for a Cure

The HBF/Blumberg Institute scientists, with their research partners from Drexel University College of Medicine, both located in the HBF’s Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center, are developing two types of therapies: direct-acting antivirals and innate host defense activators. The first type inhibits virus-host interactions and viral gene products; the second recruits the host’s immune system to attack and eliminate cccDNA and infected liver cells.

For each of these approaches, the researchers have identified key steps to target in the hepatitis B infection cycle, from virus entry into the liver cell, to cccDNA replication, to formation of virus particles.

For many of these steps, “Our scientists have developed assays that can be used to screen for new drugs. We are a recognized leader in designing and developing these assays and, for a time, had the only cccDNA- dependent cell lines,” notes Block. Almost 100 different cell lines for assays have been developed that can be used to screen for drugs that activate the innate host defense pathways.

For drug screening, cell lines are incubated with potential drug candidates from the Foundation’s own library of almost 90,000 compounds and the natural products collection that it received as a donation from Merck & Co. in 2011.

The strategic goal is to discover new drugs that complement existing therapies, but also enable the immune system to provide long-lasting antiviral protection, even when the person is no longer on drug therapy.

Several compounds in development already show some effectiveness in animal models. “We have a capsid inhibitor, a pregenomic RNA capsid inhibitor (JT Guo), an HBsAg inhibitor (A Cuconati), a cccDNA repressor (H Guo, A Cuconati, JT Guo), and an activator of innate host defense pathways (J Chang and JT Guo),” Block reports.

He is particularly excited about their stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, which was very effective in mouse models. The research group is now working on a human STING agonist, although an appropriate assay for this compound still needs to be developed.

What the Future Holds 

“The Hepatitis B Foundation and its Blumberg Institute have contributed
to some of the most important work in studying the phases of the virus lifecycle that has led to the currently available drugs. Our researchers continue to be at the forefront in developing a promising pipeline for hepatitis B drug discovery,” says Block.

“I am absolutely confident that a cure is possible” he asserts. “After all, enough people with hepatitis B resolve their infections, either medically or spontaneously — even some people with chronic infections. So we know it’s possible.”

 

 

Perspective on the Liver Biopsy – “The Gold Standard”

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Have you noticed fewer patients living with chronic HBV seem to get liver biopsies to assess liver damage?  Here is a perspective on the Liver Biopsy, known as the “gold standard”, by William Carey, MD, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Cleveland Clinic.

Published in Healio , July 14, 2014 

Liver biopsy is referred to as the “gold standard” in assessing both the activity and degree of fibrosis in many chronic liver diseases including hepatitis B. It is not likely to retain this lofty status much longer. Liver biopsy has several important drawbacks. Among them are cost, risk for complications, need for additional health care resources, patient and physician aversion to the procedure, inadequate specimen size and the lack of specific findings.

Liver biopsy adds between $2,500 to $3,500 to the cost of an evaluation (even higher for transvenous liver biopsy). Approximately 20% of patients will experience significant pain following percutaneous liver biopsy. More severe complications include pneumothorax, major bleeding, inadvertent biopsy of the kidney or colon, and perforation of the gallbladder. Death, most often due to uncontrolled bleeding, may occur in up to 1 in 1,000 biopsies. Underappreciated is the risk of no-representative sampling, either because of the small size of biopsy specimen or patchy distribution of fibrosis.

Noninvasive measures to assess hepatic fibrosis have been around for a generation and are increasingly used as a substitute for liver biopsy. The 2014 medley of noninvasive estimates of hepatic fibrosis includes FibroTest/FibroSure, APRI, FIB-4, other serum based test combinations, and elastography (either ultrasound- or MRI-based). Noninvasive tests have potential both for determination of current liver damage and for monitoring disease progression. They can be done at a fraction of the cost of a liver biopsy. Salkic and colleagues have reported the results of an exquisitely performed meta-analysis of peer reviewed published reports and confirmed the value of FibroTest/FibroSure in hepatitis B — mainly in excluding the diagnosis of cirrhosis. The findings of this review are restricted to hepatitis B, but others have shown similar findings in hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease.

While there is growing consensus that noninvasive markers provide valuable information, allowing the clinician to make important decisions about treatment, screening for varices and hepatocellular carcinoma, it is essential to understand limitations of FibroTest, including distortions in results in individuals with Gilbert’s syndrome and in those with hemolysis. This study reiterates the relative insensitivity of noninvasive tests in discriminating between lesser degrees of fibrosis (F0, F1, and F2).

Data are accumulating to suggest noninvasive markers (combining a noninvasive test plus ultrasound-based elastrography, for example) are powerful tools in assessing natural history of individuals with many chronic liver diseases including hepatitis B, providing indices of disease activity, progression and fibrosis regression after treatment. Convenience, lower cost, and ease of repeated measurements over time favor widespread acceptance of these tools in clinical practice.

Do You Know Your Hepatitis Facts from Fiction?

Hepatitis-Awareness-Month(2)
May is Hepatitis Awareness Month!

In recognition of May as Hepatitis Awareness Month, Liver Cancer Connect reviews some important facts and dangerous fiction about chronic hepatitis B and C- the world’s leading causes of liver cancer.  Continue reading "Do You Know Your Hepatitis Facts from Fiction?"

World Hepatitis Day 2012 in Cairns, Queensland, Australia

WHD 2012 Cairns: Hep Day Out friends - Yvonne, Rhondda, Murph & Allana

A personal reflection on WHD events from Guest Blogger Yvonne Drazic

WHD was again promoted and celebrated in style in Cairns with lots of dedicated people making it a great success. The key organizers were Rhondda, the Viral Hepatitis Health Practitioner from the Cairns Sexual Health Service, and Alanna and Julie from the Queensland Injectors’ Health Network (QuIHN). At present, the bulk of hepatitis B health promotion and patient support is done through these organizations as part of hepatitis C and HIV services because sufficient separate government funding for hepatitis B is not yet forthcoming.

Last year, Rhondda organized a fabulous free lecture about hepatitis B which, while aimed at health care professionals and medical staff, was open to the public and especially to people affected by or living with hepatitis B. The speaker was Dr. Benjamin Cowie, an infectious diseases physician from Melbourne with a special interest in hepatitis B. His passionate and compelling presentation evoked great feedback from the audience, many stating it was a real eye-opener. This year’s lecture was presented by Dr. Joshua Davis who spoke equally engaging about his efforts to address hepatitis B in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. The talk attracted an audience of more than 100 people. As an add-on to the lecture, Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander health workers could move on to an event/workshop called Yarnin up HepB where they were able to discuss anything hepB – and get expert advice – from Dr. Davis. This was very well received although many participants were quite disturbed about the statistics of hep B in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

This year the open day at Cairns Sexual Health Service was called “Hep Day Out”. It was designed to be fun with funky, colourful posters (created by the talented Murph) and a music jam session. Like last year, the day featured tours of the premises with screening opportunities, as well as the famous QuIHN van offering information, a scrumptious lunch and fun activities. Every visitor who took the tour and completed a short quiz received a cool t-shirt courtesy of Hepatitis Queensland (see photos) and a health pack. In addition, the resident psychologist was on site for people who wanted a chat and I was available for brain-picking for everyone who wanted to know more about hepatitis B. Invitations were distributed to migrant services and communities but unfortunately did not attract any visitors from these groups. Possibly the time was unsuitable due to work commitments but it could also be due to fear of stigmatization which may be increased in these populations. I am currently conducting research to explore barriers and other issues that may keep people from engaging in health-protective actions such as screening and monitoring. It will also help to find more effective ways of engaging with migrant communities and get a better turnout for next year’s WHD.

Overall, plenty of awareness was raised, many people were educated about viral hepatitis, and a fun time was had by all.

Cleaning Up and Staying Safe at College

Whether you have hepatitis B or not, you will want to follow some simple clean-up rules now that you are living in a more public environment and away from home. (Take a look at the previous blog – Off to College with HBV.) Regardless of your living arrangements – dorm room, quad, or apartment, you will want to set a couple of ground rules, and be prepared for maintenance, and possible emergency spot cleaning.

Bathrooms are a breeding ground for a plethora of bacteria and viruses. They are the site of all kinds of planned and unplanned, natural and unnatural biological and human functions that produce blood, bodily fluids, and all kinds of other body by-products.  They are shared spaces where very private things occur. They are shared spaces where there’s a whole other microbial world living off of all the human activities that occur in the bathroom. That is why bathrooms should be cleaned properly and regularly.  It’s good practice and keeps everyone healthy.

Standard or universal precautions are  prevention methods that should be integrated into everyone’s life.  The whole goal is to prevent contact with an infectious agent such as HIV, HCV and HBV, assuming all possible blood or bodily fluids may be contaminated. They remind you to provide a barrier between you and any potentially contaminated blood or body fluid, whether it is in an emergency situation with a bleeding person, or the cleanup of blood or bodily fluids. It’s yet another reminder to “wash your hands”, and basically use common sense.  In the case of HBV or other infectious diseases (HCV, HIV), blood in particular may contain high concentrations of virus which could be transmitted to others through mucous membranes, orifices, or microscopic cuts in the skin.  HBV is a tenacious virus and can live outside the body for seven days. Fortunately, HBV is vaccine preventable.

If you live in a dorm, with shared, floor bathrooms, they should be cleaned and maintained by the janitorial staff. However, it’s good to be prepared for an emergency spill in your room, or the bathroom at odd hours. If you live in a quad or apartment with others, you’ll want to be sure to set up a chore chart so that common areas like bathrooms and kitchens are properly cleaned, and that trash is regularly disposed.  If you don’t set the ground rules from the start there are bound to be hard feelings among your roommates.

Weekly bathroom maintenance should include the disinfection of surfaces on toilets, sinks and showers.  The general rule is clean first and then disinfect.  This does take some time since the bathroom cleaner is first sprayed and allowed to sit for at least 30 seconds (times will vary with the disinfectant or depending on your source), and then cleaned with towels, (to be disposed, or laundered separately in hot water with detergent and a little bleach) and then disinfected with the same cleaner and allowed to sit for at least five minutes, and then finally wiped down again with clean towels.  Don’t know how many housekeepers follow this rule of thumb, but use common sense and think about how you use your towels as you clean from surface to surface.  In between cleanings, use disposable bleach wipes to wipe the toilet and sink, and don’t be stingy with them.

Keep the container of bleach wipes in plain sight so visitors have the option to wipe the toilet, sink, or clean up after an accident – hopefully not with the same wipe. (You may find it interesting to note that the sink is often the greatest source of bacteria…a moist environment with plenty of microbial snacks including skin flakes and other organic fodder) Don’t forget to put out a container of liquid soap to encourage hand washing, and if you are a female at college, be sure that all used feminine hygiene products are carefully disposed of in plastic bags.

When it comes to cleaning up a blood or body fluid spill, it is essential to follow the rules.  All blood should be considered contaminated with an infectious agent such as HCV, HIV or HBV.  If you are assisting your friend or roommate in the case of an emergency, be sure you have a barrier between you and your bleeding friend – of course this is after you have called 911 if this is a true emergency..  Disposable gloves are perfect, but in a pinch, put plastic bags on your hands, or use a clean sanitary pad, or bunch of towels (paper or cloth) to staunch the flow of blood.  When you are finished with the emergency, dispose of contaminated articles and thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water before progressing to the cleanup.  Hopefully your roommate will be able to clean up his own spill, but it’s possible he’ll need some help.

Bleach is a wonderful disinfectant, and effectively kills HBV, and other pathogens.  Don your disposable gloves, and  prepare a fresh bleach solution for the cleanup that is one part bleach to nine parts cool water.  Use a fresh solution as the potency of the solution quickly diminishes, and do not use hot water.  Remember the proper order – clean, then disinfect.  When cleaning a surface that is known to contain a potential contaminant (blood or bodily fluid), spray it with the bleach solution and let it sit for a few minutes.   While wearing gloves, cleanup the spill with disposable rags or paper towels.  Dispose of the contaminated towels, and gloves.  Don a new pair of gloves and once again spray the area.  Let is sit and disinfect for at least 10 minutes and wipe again with clean towels.  Dispose of contaminated towels and gloves in a seal-able plastic bag.

If you are in a dorm shared-bathroom, it’s possible to walk into a mess you choose not to clean up, but be sure to alert floor mates of the contaminated area with a sign so others are not accidentally exposed to the potential contaminant, and to alert the janitorial staff of the spill.   It’s a courtesy, but it also keeps everyone safe.

There are also EPA registered disinfectants that are premixed and kill infectious diseases, but be sure that HBV is specifically listed as it is a more difficult virus to kill.  The times to soak and disinfect vary with each product, and the times I found for basic disinfection varied in my research, so when you’re making the effort, be sure to take the extra time to ensure you have killed all possible contaminants.  These pre-mixed disinfectants are more convenient, but they are also more expensive, and you need to check the dates to ensure they remain effective and have not expired.

Here are list of supplies to have on hand for your room or apartment that specifically relate to blood and body fluid cleanups:

  • 1 small bottle of bleach
  • 1 squirt bottle (pre-marked with a sharpie to denote bleach and water quantities.. 1 part bleach to 9 parts cool water)
  • Box of disposable gloves
  • plastic bags – trash and sandwich bags
  • disposable towels or paper towels

You’ll need a list of other supplies if you want to keep that bathroom relatively germ free.  Don’t forget the soap and the bleach wipes!

 

Off to College With Hepatitis B

Are you ready to head off to college?  Are you concerned about your HBV status?  Here are a few things to consider…

If you live in the U.S. your roomate(s) will most likely be vaccinated for hepatitis B, so you shouldn’t need to worry about disclosure.  Later on in your relationship you can decide whether or not you want to disclose your HBV status to your roommate, other friends, or SOs.  For now it’s probably best to keep it to yourself.  Once the info is out, you cannot take it back.

If you are sexually active you will want to consider how you will handle these relationships.  HBV is spread through vaginal or anal sex so you want to be sure to practice safe sex for the benefit of both you and your partner.  Please use a condom to ensure there is no transmission of STDs and other infectious diseases.  There is a vaccine for hepatitis B, but not for HCV and HIV.  If you are living with HBV, you are well aware that you do not want an HBV coinfection with either HCV or HIV.  Coinfections are more complicated and more difficult to treat and manage.  Play it safe and use a condom.

It’s great to be on your own at college.  Days and nights learning, studying and preparing for a bright future, branching out on your own… away from mom and dad.  Quite often it’s time for a little experimentation, a little craziness, or just plain fun.

It’s a time to interact with lots of different kinds of people.  Sometimes you have control over these interactions and sometimes you don’t.  You can’t control all of these things, but you can control parts of your own little environment.

Get yourself a bag for your personal toiletries.  Whether you’re using bathroom and shower facilities on the dorm floor, living in a quad, or sharing an apartment with roommates, you’ll want to be sure to keep your personal items in a separate bag and out of sight of floor mates, roommates and visitors.

We all know that HBV and other infectious agents are transmitted via contaminated bodily fluids – especially blood, semen and vaginal fluids.  Store your razor inside your bag, and be sure you do NOT leave it in the shower stall.  Razors are an effective transmission vehicle for infectious disease like HBV or even HCV and HIV.  If you leave your razor in the shower, you cannot assume that someone else has not used it.  Throw it away and start fresh.

This goes for nail accessories like clippers, cuticle cutters or even files.  Keep them in your bag and keep them out of sight from roommates and other visitors.  Few people think twice about picking up a pair of nail clippers or a nail file.

Communal soap can be liquid or bar soap.  Don’t share any body jewelry including pierced earrings.

Don’t forget about your toothbrush.  I can still remember a friend mentioning that he had borrowed my toothbrush, after visiting.  Unfortunately he mentioned it after I had already brushed my teeth.  Disgusting!  Do you really want anyone using your toothbrush??  After the fact, it’s too late to do anything about it.  You need to be proactive to make sure these little mishaps don’t occur.  Put your personal items away and out of sight.

Then there are the visitors…  Most likely you won’t have control of everyone in and out of your room or apartment.  My college roommate and her boyfriend loved that I was organized and prepared for all scenarios.  They were constantly “borrowing” my things.  I wish I had the courage to tell my roommate’s boyfriend that I would prefer he wash my pillowcase after he borrowed my pillow, along with all of the other things he helped himself to without asking.  Keep your personal items separate, and let your roommate know that your boundaries are to be respected. Establish these boundaries up front!

Perhaps you’re worried about what others might think of your toiletries bag, or that you like your personal things respected.  Don’t tell them you’ve got HBV.  Just laugh and tell them you’re a “germaphobe”. By keeping personal items out of view and sequestered in your own bag, everyone is protected.

Be sure to read the follow-on blog: Cleaning up and Staying Safe at College. 

Show Your Support for World Hepatitis Day!

World Hepatitis Day is Thursday, July 28th!  Join the World Hepatitis Alliance.  The theme is “This is Hepatitis”, which is aimed at raising global awareness.  Globally, two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B, (one out of three), and 400 million live with a chronic, lifelong infection.  Although there are excellent treatments available, there is no cure for hepatitis B.  However, there is a safe and effective HBV vaccine.  If you are infected, be sure loved ones and household contacts are screened and vaccinated.  If you are not infected or not vaccinated, get vaccinated and help eliminate the spread of this virus, worldwide.

Show your support by adding a World Hepatitis Day PicBadge to your facebook and twitter profile pictures.  This makes a great visual statement.  You can also add the widget to your website or blog.  Take a look at HBF’s website, and note the slider at the top with “World Hepatitis Day”.  Check out the details on how to add the World Hepatitis Day PicBadge to your profiles and website.  Select the “add to profile picture” button.  Follow the instructions and the badge will be added to your FB and/or twitter profile pics.  (FYI.. I use hootsuite to manage my tweets, and it wasn’t initially obvious that it picked it up, but it worked fine. )  Check out HBFs FB and twitter profile pics to get an idea of how it looks.  Once you make the modifications, the PicBadge program will post the badge to your wall and tweet an invite to others to join with their support.  You can also have picbadge send a request to FB friends so they may lend their support.

On a personal note, consider sharing your story on the World Hepatitis Alliance’s “Wall of Stories”  Please feel free to share your story in your native language.  The more personal the stories, the better!

Be sure to let us know what you or your organization is up to for World Hepatitis Day!  No contribution is too small in the fight against viral hepatitis!

Fun, Fireworks, and Alcohol Consumption Over the 4th of July Holiday

Are you gearing up for the 4th of July, holiday?  Planning on a couple of days of fun, sun, fireworks, and holiday picnics and parties?  If you’re living with hepatitis B, you will want to be sure to abstain, or at a minimum, keep your alcohol consumption extremely restricted.  Some of the statistics out there linking alcohol consumption to liver disease are sobering (no pun intended), even for those that do not suffer from liver disease due to viral hepatitis.  If you have HBV, drinking just doesn’t mix with love N’ your liver.

So just how much alcohol is too much?  Like everything else, alcohol tolerances vary with the individual, so the amount will vary.  Some people, with or without HBV, may be more prone to liver disease due to contributing factors such as fatty liver disease, hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis,  or hepatoxicity – exposure to certain drugs or environmental and chemical toxins causing liver scarring .   Remember that the liver is basically a very quiet, essential, non-complaining organ.

If you have HBV, you know your tolerance for alcohol is going to be nil.  Drinking will contribute to liver disease.

For healthy women who do not have hep B, 20 grams of alcohol, per day and for men without HBV,  60 grams of alcohol per day is risky business and may very well contribute to liver disease.  This equates to 60 ml. of sixty-proof liquor, or 200 ml. of wine (12% alcohol), and 500 ml of beer (5% alcohol).  A visual always works best for me:

Ouch… Even if you do not have HBV, you are risking your liver health when you drink casually, on a daily basis.  For women, this basically equates to one mixed drink, glass of wine or beer per day, while the limit for men may be three alcoholic drinks per day.

If you’ve got HBV, perhaps it’s time to eliminate alcohol from the party scene and replace it with a thirst-quenching, non-alcoholic beverage.  If not, you might consider one drink for the holiday weekend, and abstain for very l-o-n-g periods of time without alcohol.  Consider one glass of wine, occasionally, the new “binge drinking” level if you wish to best maintain your liver health.  Let’s face it:  abstinence is best if you’re really looking to limit the damage done to your liver.  There are so many toxins that our liver silently removes on a daily basis.  This is one toxin we can choose to control, and eliminate from our environment.

So, light up the sky with fireworks.  Eat your favorite, healthy foods this weekend, and make a commitment, starting this weekend, to remove alcohol from your life, and love your liver.

 

Mosquito Repellent and Hepatitis B

Summer has arrived and so have your annoying neighborhood mosquitoes, who show up uninvited to every party.  Everyone’s first impulse is to spray on the DEET, an effective, insect repellent, to keep them away.

If you have hepatitis B, and are working hard to “love your liver”, you might be wondering what affect DEET will have on your liver.   Your liver is an amazing organ responsible for filtering just about everything we inhale, ingest or absorb through the skin.  DEET is an effective, but strong chemical, that when applied to the skin, or accidentally inhaled while spraying, or ingested due to poor hand washing, may be found in the blood stream up to 12 hours later.  It’s your liver’s job to ensure this toxin is filtered from your system.   An over-taxed liver can be problematic for anyone, but placing additional burdens on your liver when you have HBV can contribute to liver damage over time.

Here are a couple of things to consider.  Mosquitoes and other flying, or biting insects are vectors for numerous diseases that can make us very sick.   (Please keep in mind that mosquitoes are NOT vectors for hepatitis B.)  As a result we have to consider other options, or weigh the risks vs. the benefits of spraying on a dose of DEET.  If you do decide that DEET is the best protection against mosquitoes, consider limiting your exposure by applying it to your clothing, rather than directly to the skin.  When you’re back inside and out of mosquito territory, wash it off.  Don’t wear it to bed.

A natural alternative to chemically produced repellents is citronella, which has been registered for use in the U.S. since 1948.  It is made by steam distillation of certain grasses, and is considered a biopesticide, a naturally occurring substance that controls by non-toxic means.

Citronella can be purchased in various outdoor candles and natural, registered products such as Burt’s Bee’s Herbal Insect Repellent, or Avon Skin So Soft.  Citronella and other remedies can be purchased as essential oils and applied to the skin.  Please remember that natural does not equate to safe.  Make sure directions-for-use are legitimate and followed explicitly.  These oils are dangerous when ingested, and they are not packaged in child-resistant containers to avoid accidental swallowing.  Be sure to research all natural remedies or chemical products, and ensure the directions-for-use are legitimate, and that they are stored out of reach of children.  In researching this blog, I ran across various factoids and instructions-for-use with natural remedies that were contradicted in other articles.

Here are some additional tips that may require a little more forethought, and may not be as effective as a chemical repellent.  However, they can provide some relief and perhaps a balance.  Recommendations include:

  • Wear light colored clothing.  Mosquitoes are attracted to dark clothing.
  • Cover as much skin as possible with clothing… long sleeves, pants, socks, hats, etc.
  • Consider the fragrances you wear.  Floral or fruity fragrances, scented soaps, perfumes, hair products, scented sunscreen and even fragrance from fabric softeners and dryer sheets attract mosquitoes.  In my house, nothing smells clean and fresh.  Everything is unscented.
  • Avoid being out when mosquitoes are most active – dawn and dusk.
  • Use external fans.  Mosquitoes don’t fly well in a stiff breeze!
  • Avoid areas with standing water.
  • Eat garlic…lots of it.  My pharmacist is Indian, and also prescribes natural remedies.  She told me garlic is often consumed in massive quantities to discourage mosquitoes.
  • Bats are your friends…   I grew up with two medium-sized, but stagnant ponds on our property.  We had lots of bats and no mosquitoes.

As always, it’s all about common sense and balance.  If you’re having a picnic at the Dismal Swamp, or traveling to countries where the risk of disease carrying mosquitoes is very high, then you might want to think about bringing along the can of DEET, and using it responsibly.  Perhaps an outing here or there may also warrant the use.  Otherwise, make an attempt to combat mosquitoes naturally, or make a concerted effort to avoid them at their worst.  Yet another way to incorporate “loving your liver” into your daily life!