Hep B Blog

Newly Diagnosed with Hepatitis B? How Did I Get this? Learning the HBV Transmission Basics

If you have just been diagnosed with hepatitis B virus (HBV) then you need to understand how HBV is transmitted. This is important whether you have an acute or chronic infection.  You must understand you are infectious and can transmit the virus to others.

How is hepatitis B transmitted? Hepatitis B is transmitted through direct contact with blood and infected body fluids. This can happen through direct blood-to-blood contact, unprotected sex, unsterile needles, medical or dental equipment, and from a HBV infected mother to her baby at birth.  For kids, pediatric experts report that the fluid that oozes from cuts and open sores is also highly infectious, so keep those open cuts covered. HBV can also be transmitted inadvertently by the sharing of personal items such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, body jewelry and other personal items that have small amounts of blood on them.

Hepatitis B is not transmitted casually by sneezing or coughing, shaking hands or sharing or preparing a meal.  In fact HBV is not contracted during most of life’s daily activities. You don’t need to keep cups and utensils separate. Hugging, or even kissing won’t cause infection unless there are bleeding gums or open sores during the exchange. It’s really all about trace amounts of infected blood, though the virus is in other bodily fluids in lower concentrations.  For example, it’s not about the saliva on the toothbrush that is a big concern, but rather the potential for trace amounts of blood that could be exchanged with a shared toothbrush.

How did I get this? If you have been diagnosed with hepatitis B virus you are likely racking your brain trying to figure out how you could have gotten HBV.  Some can immediately track their likely exposure to a recent event, or perhaps a time period in their life where they were more likely to have been exposed. They may fit into an at-risk category for hepatitis B due to lifestyle choices, country of origin, frequent travel and exposure in endemic areas of the world, or an unsafe blood transfusion, or medical or dental procedures performed without proper infection control. Some may never know how they were infected. What is important is that you are now aware.

Since HBV is a silent infection there can be years before it is detected.  Many individuals born in endemic parts of the globe find out later in life that they are hepatitis B positive, even though they have likely had HBV since birth or early-childhood. Children are especially vulnerable to chronic HBV. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children infected with HBV will remain chronically infected, and most will have no symptoms.  Often it remains undetected until it is caught in routine blood work or later in life after there is liver inflammation or disease progression. In Asia, vertical transmission from mother to child is particularly common; whereas in Africa, horizontal transmission at a young age may be more likely.

Although not casually transmitted, there are inadvertent opportunities for exposure to hepatitis B. If you are from an area where HBV is very common, then the odds of exposure, transmission, and infection will be higher. Many are surprised when family is tested, and they learn hepatitis B appears to “run in their family”.  Hepatitis B is not genetic, but it is very easily passed from an HBsAg positive mom to her baby at birth. Hep B is a vaccine preventable disease, but not all moms living with the virus have access to the birth dose for their baby or able to complete the vaccine series, or they have a high viral load resulting in failure of HBV birth prophylaxis. The good news is that today we can prevent the transmission of hepatitis B to the next generation.

If you do, or have participated in high-risk activities at some point in your life, you are also at greater risk. This is not a time to judge or be judged.

Time to move forward. Unless your infection is acute and you can definitively identify your exposure, I would advise that you let it go and move forward. I spent a number of years wondering about the details of my daughter’s infection, but ultimately, it really didn’t matter. What is important is seeing a doctor to learn more about your infection, getting treatment if you need it, and preventing transmission to others.

Journey to the Cure: How is Hepatitis B Related to Liver Cancer ft. Aejaz Sayeed, PhD

Welcome to “Journey to the Cure.” This is a web series that chronicles the progress at the Hepatitis B Foundation and Baruch S. Blumberg Institute towards finding the cure for hepatitis B.

In the four episode (part 1), Kristine Alarcon, MPH talks with Aejaz Sayeed, PhD, Assistant Professor of the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute. They talk about how hepatitis B is connected to liver cancer and doctors and scientists tell if a patient has cancer.

For any questions about hepatitis B, please email info@hepb.org.

The Hepatitis B Foundation is a national nonprofit organization dedicated to finding a cure and improving the lives of those affected by hepatitis B worldwide through research, education and patient advocacy. Visit us at www.hepb.org, on Facebook at www.facebook.com/hepbfoundation, on Twitter at @hepbfoundation, and our Blog at www.hepb.org/blog

Disclaimer: The information provided in this video is not intended to serve as medical advice or endorsement of any product. The Hepatitis B Foundation strongly recommends each person discuss this information and their questions with a qualified health care provider.

Edited:
Kristine Alarcon, MPH

Special thanks:
Samantha Young

Music:
Modern – iMovie Library Collection

 

 

Join the Conversation at the Hep B United Summit; Watch Summit Sessions On Facebook Live!

The annual Hep B United Summit, organized by the Hepatitis B Foundation, convenes in Washington D.C. from Wednesday, July 25 through Thursday, July 26. National and local coalition partners, experts, stakeholders, and federal partners will meet to discuss how to increase hepatitis B testing and vaccination and improve access to care and treatment for individuals living with hepatitis B.

You can watch many of these sessions on Facebook Live. You can also follow the conversation at the Summit on Twitter with #Hepbunite!

Facebook Live is live video streaming available to all Pages and profiles on Facebook. Check out the agenda below and go to the HepBUnited Facebook Page to view the live broadcast. Some breakout sessions may be broadcast from the Hepatitis B Foundation Facebook Page. Sessions will also be available following the broadcast for those who are not able to join us live.

Here are the details on the sessions that will be broadcast on Hep B United’s Facebook Live unless noted otherwise:

Day 1 – Wednesday July 25:

8:30 – 9:00 AM:  Welcome and Introductions
Tim Block, PhD, President & Co-founder, Hepatitis B Foundation and Baruch S. Blumberg Institute
Chari Cohen DrPH, MPH, Co-Chair, Vice President for Public Health and Programs, Hepatitis B Foundation
Jeff Caballero, MPH, Co-Chair, Hep B United and Executive Director, Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO)

9:00 AM:  Applying a Health Equity Lens to Eliminating Hepatitis B
Tamara Henry, Ed.D., Teaching Assistant Professor, Prevention and Community Health, he George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health

9:30 AM:  Hep B United Coalition: Year-in-Review
Jacqueline Coleman, MEd, MSM, BA, CPC, Facilitator, Vision Que!, LLC Kate Moraras, MPH, Director, Hep B United and Senior Program Director, Hepatitis B Foundation

11:15 AM:  Know Hepatitis B Campaign and Expansion to African Immigrants
Cynthia Jorgensen, DrPH, Team Lead and Sherry Chen, MPH, CHES, Health Scientist, Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Sierra Pellechio, BS, CHES, Health Outreach Coordinator, Hepatitis B Foundation

1:00 PM:  Federal-Community Partnership to Eliminate Hepatitis B
Moderator: Chari Cohen
Panelists:
Matthew Lin, MD, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Minority Health, HHS Office of Minority Health
Corinna Dan, RN, MPH, Viral Hepatitis Policy Advisor, HHS Office on HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy
Paul J. Wiedle, PharmD, MPH, CAPT USPHS, Acting Director, Division of Viral Hepatitis, CDC National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Sarah F. Schillie, MD, MPH, Division of Viral Hepatitis, CDC National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Nancy Fenlon, RN, MS, Public Health Advisor, Immunization Services Division, CDC National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Judith Steinberg, MD, MPH, Chief Medical Officer, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

2:30 PM – 3:45 PM:  BREAKOUT SESSIONS I

Preventing Perinatal Hepatitis B Transmission
Moderator: Amy Tang, MD, Hepatitis B Program Director, Charles B. Wang Community Health Center
Panelists:
Ruth Brogden, Center for Asian Health at Saint Barnabas Medical Center/New Jersey Hep B Coalition
Janice LyuMS, Charles B. Wang Community Health Center
Liz TangLMSW, New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene

Combating Hepatitis B-Related Stigma and Discrimination (Hepatitis B Foundation Facebook Live)
Moderators: Nadine Shiroma, Policy Advisor, Hepatitis B Foundation and Rita Kuwahara, MD, MIH, Hepatitis B Policy Fellow, AAPCHO

4:00 PM – 5:00 PM:  BREAKOUT SESSIONS II

Expanding Hepatitis B Screening to Other High-Risk Communities
Moderator: Arman Altug, Hepatitis Education Project (HEP)
Panelists:
Jack Hildick-Smith, Philadelphia Department of Public Health
Thaddeus Pham, Hep Free Hawaii/Hawaii Department of Health

Discuss strategies in reaching new partners to increase hepatitis B screening, vaccination and linkage to care.

Developing Innovative Practices in Hepatitis B Education and Screening  (Hepatitis B Foundation Facebook Live)
Moderator: Catherine Freeland, MPH, Public Health Program Manager, Hepatitis B Foundation
Panelists:
Brandi Dobbs, FNP-BC, CNS-CH,Asian Services in Action, Inc.
Karen Jiobu, Asian American Community Services
Layal Rabat, MA,Asian Pacific Community in Action
Xuan Phan, Mercy Housing and Human Development

Share results from the Hep B United Mini Grants Program.

 Day 2 – Thursday July 26

9:00 AM:   Improving Access to Hepatitis B Treatment
Wayne Turner, Senior Attorney National Health Law Program (NHeLP)
Sierra Pellechio, BS, CHES, Health Outreach Coordinator, Hepatitis B Foundation
Lauren Su, Hepatitis B Foundation

10:30 AM: Increasing Provider Knowledge about Hepatitis B
Richard Andrews, MD, MPH, Co-Chair, National Task Force on Hepatitis B MPH, and Medical Director, HOPE Clinic
Amy Tang, MD, MPH, Co-Chair, National Task Force on Hepatitis B and Hepatitis B Program Director, Charles B. Wang Community Health Center

1:30 PM:   Achieving Health Equity to Eliminate Hepatitis B
Facilitator: Cynthia Jorgensen

Not able to join the sessions with Facebook Live? Follow the conversation on Twitter using the #Hepbunite hashtag. Follow the events, retweet and engage with event attendees and help us raise hepatitis B awareness in the U.S. and around the globe.

World Hepatitis Day is July 28th, and this Summit is a terrific opportunity to share with the world what we’re doing to help those living with hepatitis B in our communities. Other popular hashtags for World Hepatitis Day, and to raise hepatitis B awareness, include: #NOhep, #KnowHepB, #WorldHepatitisDay, #WorldHepDay, #WHD2018, #FindTheMissingMillions #hepatitis, #hepatitisB, #HBV, #hepB, #justB. Connect with, follow and engage with fellow partners and advocates on twitter to keep the hep B conversation going during the Hep B United Summit, World Hepatitis Day events, and beyond.

Check out: @AAPCHOtweets, @AAHC_HOPEclinic, @AAHI_Info, @AAPInews, @apcaaz, @APIAHF, @ASIAOHIO, @CBWCHC, @cdchep, @cpacs, @HBIDC, @HBIMN15, @HepBFoundation, @HepBpolicy, @HepBProject, @HepBUnited, @HepBUnitedPhila, @HepEduProject, @HepFreeHawaii, @HHS_ViralHep, @MinorityHealth, @njhepb, @NVHR1, @nycHepB, @NYU_CSAAH, @sfhepbfree, @supportichs @wahainitiative @jlccrum

Missing from the list? Contact the Foundation at info@hepb.org to be added.

Don’t forget to join the World Hepatitis Alliance’s  #FindtheMissingMillions  Thunderclap to encourage people to get tested on World Hepatitis Day. Participate in the Hepatitis B Foundations World Hepatitis Day video and tell the world why you think people should be tested for hepatitis B.

Still have questions? Email us at info@hepb.org and we’ll help you get started!

Visit the Hep B United and Hepatitis B Foundation websites for more information about hepatitis B and related programs.

Finding the Missing Millions in Ghana

Theobald Owusu-Ansah, President of the Hepatitis Foundation of Ghana and Hepatitis Coalition of Ghana and Guest Blogger, shares his efforts to eliminate hepatitis B in Ghana.

Viral Hepatitis is very common in Ghana, but awareness and testing has remained low. The Hepatitis Foundation of Ghana is working hard to address these gaps. Our mission is to eliminate viral hepatitis and improve the quality of life for those living with chronic hepatitis B and C in Ghana. We have a robust viral hepatitis community screening and awareness program. Through this program, we are working to reduce hepatitis B and C transmission among people in Agona, a farming community in the Nzema East Municipality of the Western region, Ketu South of the Volta Region, Kumasi in the Ashanti Region and Sekondi Komfoase and Takoradi in the Western; and also raise awareness on viral hepatitis infection, reducing stigma and discrimination through free screening, vaccination and education activities. Since this program started, we have made great progress towards these goals! Read on to learn about our most recent successes:

EVENT AT AGONA ON 22ND DECEMBER, 2017

The Hepatitis Foundation of Ghana held a free hepatitis B screening, education and community gathering in Agona, a farming community in the Nzema East Municipality of the Western region A total of 101 persons were screened for hepatitis B. In all, 6 people tested positive for hepatitis B. Those who tested positive were counselled and referred to the district hospital for proper care and treatment.

EVENT AT KETU SOUTH ON 23RD DECEMBER, 2017

Hepatitis B free screening and education were held at Ketu South, a community in the Volta region. A total of 244 persons were screened for hepatitis B. In all, 6 people tested positive. They were counselled and referred to the district hospital for proper care and treatment.

There have been some deaths reported within the community as a result of viral hepatitis according to the people in the community. Interestingly, a majority of the people attributed them to some form of spiritual or traditional mishaps. This was due to the lack of awareness on the risks of viral hepatitis. To help overcome these myths, hepatitis educational materials such as pamphlets and stickers were delivered to the community.

EVENT WITH VOLTIC GHANA LTD IN KUMASI ON 1st MARCH, 2018.

VENUE: KNUST CAMPUS. 

We worked with the Zoom Lion division of the Voltic Ghana Ltd, providing free hepatitis B and C testing.

Those who tested negative were provided with the first two doses of the hepatitis B vaccine. They were also educated and encouraged to spread the knowledge they had received. The people expressed their appreciation for the gesture at the end of the program and promised to get their last dose of hepatitis B vaccine!

EVENT AT SEKONDI KOMFOASE AND TAKORADI ON THE 25TH TO 26TH MAY, 2018

This special event began with a health walk through the streets in the Sekondi Komfoase area and followed with a hepatitis health talk and screening. Most of the people were afraid to come and do the hepatitis B and C tests because of some common perceptions on the radio and TV. I was able to share my family story with them, and that helped some of them come forward to do the test. The screening continued the next day at Home Church in Takoradi. Overcoming misperceptions about hepatitis B is very challenging – but we were able to screen179 persons, and are following up with all of those who tested positive.

There is a lot of work still to be done in Ghana, but we will keep working to change knowledge, overcome challenges and get people tested, vaccinated and treated!

Thank you to Theobald for serving as our guest blogger this week! If you would like more information from Theobald Owusu-Ansah or the Hepatitis Foundation of Ghana, please visit their website or contact them here

Hepatitis D: Coinfection vs. Superinfection

Hepatitis D is an aggressive form of hepatitis that can only exist alongside hepatitis B. This means that all hepatitis B patients are at risk for hepatitis D, but so are people who have not received the hepatitis B vaccination series.

If contracted, 70-90% of people with chronic hepatitis B will go on to also develop a chronic hepatitis D infection – called a “superinfection”. Approximately 70% of these cases will progress to cirrhosis (liver scarring), compared to 15-30% of those infected only with the hepatitis B virus.

Due to the likelihood of liver complications, hepatitis B patients should be aware of potential exposures to hepatitis D. The virus is spread the same way as hepatitis B, through direct blood-to-blood contact and unprotected sex with an infected person. It is important to be aware that blood contact could also occur by exposure to unsafe blood transfusions, unsterile medical or dental equipment, and the sharing of razors or toothbrushes with an infected person due to the possibility of infected blood entering the body.

People who are not infected with hepatitis B may be at risk for “coinfection”, when someone contracts hepatitis B and D simultaneously during one exposure. In these cases, greater than 90% of adults will clear both infections and develop protective antibodies. While a co-infection generally resolves spontaneously after about 6 months, it can sometimes result in a life-threatening or fatal liver failure.

The good news is that the hepatitis B vaccine series can prevent both viruses in people who are not already infected. Once completed, the vaccine can provide a lifetime of protection!

For more information about hepatitis B/D coinfection, please visit www.hepdconnect.org or email us at connect@hepdconnect.org.

Recently Diagnosed with Hepatitis B? Getting Through the Next Months Waiting to Confirm if Your Infection is Acute or Chronic

Have you recently been told you have hepatitis B?  Dealing with the diagnosis and waiting out the next six months to determine if your infection will resolve itself or learning that it is a chronic infection can be nerve-wracking.

Fortunately, greater than 90 percent of healthy adults who are newly infected will clear or resolve an acute hepatitis B infection.  On the hand, greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of children infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong, chronic infection. Sometimes people are surprised to learn they have a chronic infection. It can be confusing since there are typically few or no symptoms for decades. If a person continues to test hepatitis B positive for longer than 6 months, then it is considered a chronic infection. Repeat testing is the only way to know for sure.

Acute hepatitis B patients rarely require hospitalization, or even medication.  If you are symptomatic, (some symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, abdominal pain, fever, general malaise)  you may be anxiously conferring with your doctor, but if you are asymptomatic, you might not feel compelled to take the diagnosis seriously.  Ignoring your diagnosis can be very serious. If you have concerning symptoms like jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), a bloated abdomen or severe nausea and vomiting, please see your doctor immediately. Your doctor will be monitoring your blood work over the next few months to see if you clear the virus, or monitoring your liver if there are concerning symptoms.

Your job is to start loving your liver …today.  STOP drinking alcoholic beverages.  Refrain from smoking cigarettes.  Your liver is a non-complaining organ, but you cannot live without it.  Make your diet liver-friendly and healthy filled with a rainbow of vegetables and fruits, whole grains, fish and lean meats. Minimize processed foods, saturated fats and sugar.  Drink plenty of water.

Talk to your doctor before taking prescription medications, herbal remedies, supplements or over-the-counter drugs.  Some can be dangerous to a liver that is battling hepatitis B.  Get plenty of rest, and exercise if you are able.

Don’t forget that you are infectious during this time, and that loved ones, sexual partners and household contacts should be tested to see if they need to be vaccinated to protect against hepatitis B.  Sometimes family members or close household contacts may find that they have a current infection or have recovered from a past HBV infection.  If anyone fears exposure ensure them that hepatitis B is not transmitted casually. They should get tested, and vaccinated if needed, and take simple precautions. Remind them that 1/3 of the world’s population will be infected with the hepatitis B virus during their lifetime.

On the flip-side… Do not let this new hepatitis B diagnosis consume you.  As the weeks and months pass, you might find that the infection is not resolving, and you might worry that you have a chronic infection.  The associated stress and anxiety can be challenging, even overwhelming.  It can contribute to physical symptoms you may be experiencing.  Find a family member, friend, or health care professional with whom you can share your concerns.

If you are told you have recovered from an acute HBV infection (you are now HBsAg negative, HBcAb positive and HBsAb positive) be sure to get copies of your lab reports to ensure there are no mistakes. Compare them with our easy to use blood tests chart.   If something looks wrong, or if you’re confused, speak up and ask your doctor. Once confirmed be sure to include hepatitis B as part of your personal health history. This is important in case you have conditions later in life that warrant monitoring.

No one wants to learn they have chronic hepatitis B but it is a manageable disease. You’ll want to see a doctor with experience treating chronic HBV so they can run additional tests. There are very effective treatments available, though not everyone with chronic HBV needs treatment. All people living with chronic HBV benefit from regular monitoring since things can change with time. Please do not panic or ignore a chronic hepatitis B diagnosis. Take a deep breath and get started today learning more about your HBV infection and the health of your liver.  Things are going to be okay!

If you are confused about your diagnosis, please feel free to contact the Hepatitis B Foundation at info@hepb.org.

Journey to the Cure: Where Can I Find Hep B Info Online? ft. Maureen Kamischke

Welcome to “Journey to the Cure.” This is a web series that chronicles the progress at the Hepatitis B Foundation and Baruch S. Blumberg Institute towards finding the cure for hepatitis B.

In the third episode (part 2), Kristine Alarcon, MPH sits down with Maureen Kamischke, Social Media Manager for the Hepatitis B Foundation, to talk about her social media work at the Foundation. For any questions about hepatitis B, please email info@hepb.org.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this audio post is not intended to serve as medical advice of endorsement of any product. The Hepatitis B Foundation strongly recommends each person discuss this information and their questions with a qualified health care provider.

Edited by:
Kristine Alarcon, MPH

Special thanks:
Samantha Young

Music:
Modern – iMovie Library Collection

 

Script:

Welcome to “Journey to the Cure!” Every month, we’ll sit down with scientists from the Hepatitis B Foundationand the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute to talk to you about hepatitis B and efforts to find a cure for hepatitis B. There’s still a long way to go, but we’re here to walk you through our journey.

Kristine Alarcon, MPH:
You are our social media manager, and I know you have also shared your hepatitis B story. You can find Maureen’s story in our #justB campaign. But, can you tell me more about your work as a social media manager?

Maureen Kamischke:
At the Foundation, we are very active on three outlets: Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. On Twitter, we have over 6,000 followers. We have a very active Facebook community. I would really encourage people to check out these outlets. It’s a great place to just check out what’s going on: drugs and the status of them on a daily basis. Basically, those are being updated every day.

Kristine Alarcon, MPH:
So, why is social media so important to conveying hepatitis B information?

Maureen Kamischke:
So, I think social media is a great way to reach out to different audiences. I think it’s a great way to get the messages out. You know, you can put messages out; you can link back to different parts of our website that really need to be featured and highlighted so that there are areas of what people want to learn more about; and then of course, if you are really interested in the most recent articles in hepatitis B, it’s an easy enough to link out to those so that you are not doing the work for it.

Kristine Alarcon, MPH:
So, it’s just like another type of way to easily disseminate information and get it more widely available to everyone.

Maureen Kamischke:
Yes.

Kristine Alarcon, MPH:
So, you’ve made so many connections across the globe in regard to hepatitis B partnerships, so what do you think the future looks like in the elimination of hepatitis B?

Maureen Kamischke:
Well, I would have to say that on behalf of myself and all of our friends around the world, we’re all waiting for the cure, but until that time, there’s a lot that we can do. We have a lot of good treatments available. There’s a lot of information that needs to be disseminated. There are a lot of issues with stigma and discrimination. And hopefully, social media can help decrease the amount of stigma and discrimination by educating people, allowing them to learn more about the disease, more about the people that are living with it. It’s devastating the impact of the disease that it has on people, and this is a great way to reach out to them.

Kristine Alarcon, MPH:
Thank you so much for all your efforts. Be sure to join us on our next episode of “Journey to the Cure.” Just wanted to thank Maureen again for all of her time and all of her efforts in conveying such wonderful information around the world.

If Hepatitis B Is Sexually Transmitted, How Come My Partner Isn’t Infected?

Image courtesy of Canva

I thought hepatitis B was sexually transmitted? I just tested positive, but my partner tested negative, we’ve been together for years, what gives?

This question is a common one. Hepatitis B is indeed easily transmitted sexually, so why do some people — who were not vaccinated — never get hepatitis B from their sexual partners?

It comes down to variables, such as the type of sexual activity you engage in, the viral load (HBV DNA) of the infected partner, and who is on the receiving end of infectious body fluids, especially blood that contains the most virus, and semen.

Having one partner infected, and other not, can add more stress to an already traumatic hepatitis B diagnosis. “It was very confusing and made me question how was it possible I was the only one infected,” said a woman who tested positive while her husband tested negative.  “I thought it was possibly a mistake, maybe I was a biological anomaly, which of course I was not.”

Let’s look at the factors that affect who gets infected and who doesn’t when two people have sex.

Viral load: Semen, vaginal fluids and blood all contain the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the higher the viral load, the more infectious one’s blood and body fluids are. However, having an undetectable viral load doesn’t mean you won’t infect someone during unsafe sex. Even if a man has an undetectable viral load, studies show his semen still contains some HBV and can spread infection, though the risk is lower.

So, the rule here is if a man tests positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), he must consider himself infectious.

The role of gender: In heterosexual relationships, uninfected women are at higher risk of getting infected by a male partner infected with hepatitis B, than the reverse. Women are on the receiving end of semen, which greatly increases their risk of becoming infected unless a condom is used.

When a woman is infected with hepatitis B, an uninfected man is at risk through direct contact with her vaginal secretions, but that contact is lower-risk than a woman’s direct exposure to infectious semen during intercourse.

However, an infected woman who is menstruating is more likely to spread hepatitis B because blood can contain higher levels of HBV than vaginal secretions. That is why gloves and dental dams are recommended to provide a barrier against exposure.

The type of sexual activity: Certain sexual activities are far more efficient at spreading hepatitis B than others. Oral sex appears to have a lower rate of hepatitis B transmission than vaginal sex. Anal sex carries a very high risk of transmission because of tears in the skin that can occur during penetration, which improves transmission of HBV.

Fingering carries a lesser risk, unless the infected woman is menstruating or a person has bruises or cuts on their hands that allow entry of hepatitis B virus in semen or vaginal fluids, then gloves are recommended.

The “uninfected” partner could already have been infected and cleared hepatitis B: When a person is first diagnosed with hepatitis B, doctors often test his or her partner for only the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which indicates a current hepatitis B infection. If they are negative for HBsAg, they are immediately vaccinated.

If the partner isn’t also tested for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs or HBsAb), then no one knows if the individual was already protected, either due to recovery from a past hepatitis B infection, or because they had already been vaccinated.

Hepatitis B is not called the “silent” infection for nothing — many people who get hepatitis B never have any symptoms and never realize they were infected. As a result, a wife, husband, partner or lover who tested negative for HBsAg, may actually have been infected in the past and cleared the infection and now has protective hepatitis B surface antibodies to forever safeguard them from infection. If they’re immediately vaccinated and retested after the three-dose vaccination, they will test positive for surface antibodies, without ever knowing that their antibodies resulted from a past infection, not immunization.

Bottom line, if one of you have been diagnosed and the other is not infected, it is unusual but not uncommon. Get tested and immediately vaccinated if the uninfected partner tests negative for the hepatitis B surface antibody.

Take a quiz to find out how much you know about hepatitis B transmission: click here.

Find an earlier version of this post here

World Hepatitis Day 2018: Why is Hepatitis B testing Important?

 You can help raise awareness and save lives…

Tell us why you think hepatitis B testing is important?

Globally, 292 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B. Only 10 percent are aware of their diagnosis. The theme for this year’s World Hepatitis Day is “Find the Missing Millions.” Help us raise awareness for World Hepatitis Day (July 28th, 2018) by telling the world why it is important to get tested for hepatitis B!

Create an awareness message about hepatitis B by answering the prompt below.The Hepatitis B Foundation will compile video entries for a larger video that will be released on World Hepatitis Day, July 28, 2018.

Who Can Enter? Anyone across the world!

Here’s how to Enter:

  1. Record a short video or an audio clip of yourself (15 seconds or less) answering the prompt, “People should be tested for hepatitis B because ….”

2. Note: You may choose the audio option if you wish to remain anonymous. Film yourself answering the above question. Your face and/or your picture does not have to be in the video; however, we must be able to hear you. If you choose to record an audio clip you are welcome to send a picture from your country or something that represents you. 

Keep your video no longer than 15 seconds!

  1. Send your video to us:
  1. When you send your video, please mention that you wish to participate in the World Hepatitis Day 2018 Campaign.

Video Tips/Guidelines

  1. Your video must be 15 seconds or less
  2. Your video should be in English

Note: If your video is recorded in a language other than English, please provide the English translation. If possible, provide a timed script with timings of phrases.

  1. Videos must be recorded in Landscape/horizontal mode. Videos recorded in a Vertical format cannot be used.
  2. Record your video in a quiet area or with a microphone.
  3. Record your video in good lighting.

Disclaimer

By submitting a video to this campaign, participants give the Hepatitis B Foundation permission to use their videos (audio and video), in the World Hepatitis Day campaign and promotion, as well as in future hepatitis B awareness efforts. The participant will waive any claims to royalty, right, or remuneration for such use. The Hepatitis B Foundation will not disclose any personal information obtained from participants (i.e., full names, email addresses, etc.) in the campaign to third parties or use the information for marketing or other purposes.

For inspiration, visit our website, World Hepatitis Alliance’sFind the Missing Millionscampaign, and CDC’s and Hep B United’s Know Hepatitis Bcampaign.

Submission Period: You must submit your video by July 20, 2018 (Submission closes at 11:59 PM EST on 7/20/18)

Have Questions? Please contact Kristine Alarcon at kristine.alarcon@hepb.org

Additional  information can be found at hepb.org/worldhepatitisday2018.

Journey to the Cure: What do I do if I’m pregnant and have hep B? ft. Maureen Kamischke

Welcome to “Journey to the Cure.” This is a web series that chronicles the progress at the Hepatitis B Foundation and Baruch S. Blumberg Institute towards finding the cure for hepatitis B.

In the third episode (part 1), Kristine Alarcon, MPH sits down with Maureen Kamischke, Hepatitis B Foundation Social Media Manager, to discuss what expectant mothers can do when they have hepatitis B.

For any questions about hepatitis B, please email info@hepb.org.

The Hepatitis B Foundation is a national nonprofit organization dedicated to finding a cure and improving the lives of those affected by hepatitis B worldwide through research, education and patient advocacy. Visit us at www.hepb.org, on Facebook at www.facebook.com/hepbfoundation, on Twitter at @hepbfoundation, and our Blog at www.hepb.org/blog

Disclaimer: The information provided in this video is not intended to serve as medical advice or endorsement of any product. The Hepatitis B Foundation strongly recommends each person discuss this information and their questions with a qualified health care provider.

Edited:
Kristine Alarcon, MPH

Special thanks:
Samantha Young

Music:
Modern – iMovie Library Collection